Research Articles

2019 Research Articles


Anesthesia for pediatric ophthalmologic surgery
Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus April 14, 2019

Combined spinal/caudal catheter anesthesia: extending the boundaries of regional anesthesia for complex pediatric urological surgery
Journal of Pediatric Urology April 11, 2019

Dexmedetomidine reduced sevoflurane-induced neurodegeneration and long-term memory deficits in neonatal rats
International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience April 5, 2019

Erythropoietin Reduces Neurodegeneration and Long-Term Memory Deficits Following Sevoflurane Exposure in Neonatal Rats
Neurotoxicity Research April 5, 2019

Quantitative ultrasound and apoptotic death in the neonatal primate brain
Neurobiology of Disease April 2, 2019

Assessing Long-term Neurodevelopmental Outcome Following General Anesthesia in Early Childhood: Challenges and Opportunities
Anesthesia & Analgesia April 2019

Caudal epidural blocks in paediatric patients: a review and practical considerations
British Journal of Anaesthesia April 2019

Female rats are more vulnerable to lasting cognitive impairment after isoflurane exposure on postnatal day 4 than 7
British Journal of Anaesthesia April 2019

Lasting effects of general anesthetics on the brain in the young and elderly: “mixed picture” of neurotoxicity, neuroprotection and cognitive impairment.
Journal of Anesthesia April 2019

Neuroinflammation in the Developing Brain: Risk Factors, Involvement of Microglial Cells, and Implication for Early Anesthesia
Anesthesia & Analgesia April 2019

Performance on the Operant Test Battery in young children exposed to procedures requiring general anaesthesia: the MASK study
British Journal of Anaesthesia April 2019


Effects of repeated exposure to different concentrations of sevoflurane on the neonatal mouse hippocampus.
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology. January – February 2019

Neurotoxicity of anesthetics: Mechanisms and meaning from mouse intervention studies
Neurotoxicology and Teratology January – February 2019

Neurotoxicity of general anesthetics in children: evidence and uncertainties.
Current Opinion in Pediatrics January 31, 2019

Juvenile Rats Show Altered Gut Microbiota After Exposure to Isoflurane as Neonates
Neurochemical Research January 2, 2019

Astragaloside suppresses tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 5 signaling pathway and alleviates neurodegenerative changes in retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by isoflurane.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry January 2019

A Review of Clinical Poster Presentations at the Sixth Biennial Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopment Assessment (PANDA) Symposium
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

An Open Label Pilot Study of a Dexmedetomidine-Remifentanil-Caudal Anesthetic for Infant Lower Abdominal/Lower Extremity Surgery: The T REX Pilot Study.
Pediatric Anesthesia. January 2019

Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children: Many Important Questions Remain Unanswered
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

Anesthesia Exposure in Children, Practitioners Respond to the 2016 FDA Drug Safety Communication
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

Developmental Neurotoxicity: An Update
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

Early Developmental Exposure to Repetitive Long Duration of Midazolam Sedation Causes Behavioral and Synaptic Alterations in a Rodent Model of Neurodevelopment
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

Engaging Stakeholders to Promote Safe Anesthesia and Sedation Care in Young Children
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

Epidemiology and Resource Utilization of Simple Febrile Seizure-associated Hospitalizations in the United States, 2003-2012
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

Introduction to “Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children”: A Supplement from the Sixth Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopmental Assessment (PANDA) Symposium
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

Outcomes Research in Vulnerable Pediatric Populations
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

Prolonged Anesthetic Exposure in Children and Factors Associated With Exposure Duration
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

Reaching Parents Through an Online Community
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

Report on the Sixth Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopmental Assessment (PANDA) Symposium, “Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children.”
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

SmartTots Outcomes Workshop 2017: Notes From a Round Table Discussion About Outcome Measures
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

Summary of Preclinical Poster Presentations at the Sixth Biennial Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopment Assessment (PANDA) Symposium
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

The association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and general anaesthesia – a narrative review
Anaesthesia January 2019

Using Neuroimaging to Study the Effects of Pain, Analgesia, and Anesthesia on Brain Development
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

2017 Research Articles


Long-duration general anesthesia influences the intelligence of school age children
BMC Anesthesiology. December 19, 2017

Effects of short-term exposure to sevoflurane on the survival, proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation of neural precursor cells derived from human embryonic stem cells.
Journal of Anesthesia. December 2017

More than 3 hours and less than 3 years: Safety of anaesthetic procedures in infants less than 3 years old subjected to surgery for more the 3 hours
Anales de Pediatría December 2017

Pediatric Anesthesia Considerations for Interventional Radiology
Anesthesiology December 2017

Challenges in the anesthetic management of ambulatory patients in the MRI suites
Current Opinion in Anestiology December 2017

Xenon as an adjuvant to sevoflurane anesthesia in children younger than 4 years of age, undergoing interventional or diagnostic cardiac catheterization: A randomized controlled clinical trial
Paediatric anaesthesia December 2017

Caffeine combined with sedative/anesthetic drugs triggers widespread neuroapoptosis in a mouse model of prematurity
The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine December 2017

Hydrogen gas attenuates sevoflurane neurotoxicity through inhibiting nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells signaling and proinflammatory cytokine release in neonatal rats
NeuroRepprt December 6, 2017

Protective effects of a green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, against sevoflurane-induced neuronal apoptosis involve regulation of CREB/BDNF/TrkB and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in neonatal mice
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 2017 Dec

Exposure of Developing Brain to General Anesthesia: What Is the Animal Evidence?
Anesthesiology. 2017 Dec 22

2015 Research Articles

Neonatal anesthesia: how we manage our most vulnerable patients
Korean J Anesthesiol. 2015 Oct; 68(5): 434–441.
Published online 2015 Sep 30.



Efficacy of rutin in inhibiting neuronal apoptosis and cognitive disturbances in sevoflurane or propofol exposed neonatal mice
Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015; 8(8): 14397–14409.
Published online 2015 Aug 15.



Pediatric dental sedation: challenges and opportunities
Clin Cosmet Investig Dent. 2015; 7: 97–106.
Published online 2015 Aug 26.


Long-Term Behavioral Effects in a Rat Model of Prolonged Postnatal Morphine Exposure
Behavioral Neuroscience, Vol 129(5),
Craig, M. M., & Bajic, D. (2015, July 27).



Long-term action of propofol on cognitive function and hippocampal neuroapoptosis in neonatal rats
Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015; 8(7): 10696–10704.
Published online 2015 Jul 15.

Neuroprotective properties of vitamin C on equipotent anesthetic concentrations of desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane in high fat diet fed neonatal mice
Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015; 8(7): 10444–10458.
Published online 2015 Jul 15.

Anesthetic use in newborn infants: the urgent need for rigorous evaluation
Pediatr Res. 2015 Jul; 78(1): 2–6.
Published online 2015 Apr 8.

Cognition and Brain Structure Following Early Childhood Surgery With Anesthesia
Pediatrics, June 2015
Barynia Backeljauw, Scott K. Holland, Mekibib Altaye, Andreas W. Loepke

Propofol: A Review of its Role in Pediatric Anesthesia and Sedation
CNS Drugs, July 2015, Volume 29, Issue 7, pp 543-563

Age-dependent electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns during sevoflurane general anesthesia in infants
eLIFE, July 2015

Age-dependency of sevoflurane-induced electroencephalogram dynamics in children
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 2015

Cognition and Brain Structure Following Early Childhood Surgery With Anesthesia
Pediatrics, June 2015
Backeljawu B, Holland SK, Altaye M, Loepke AW



microRNA Expression Profiling of Propofol-Treated Developing Rat Hippocampal
DNA Cell Biol, June 2015.
Sun W, Pei L

Regional (spinal, epidural, caudal) versus general anaesthesia in preterm infants undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy in early infancy
Cochrane Database Syst Rev., June 2015.
Jones LJ, Craven PD, Lakkundi A, Foster JP, Badawi N

Ketamine-Induced Toxicity in Neurons Differentiated from Neural Stem Cells
Mol Neurobiol, June 2015.
Slikker W Jr, Liu F, Rainosek SW, Patterson TA, Sadovova N, Hanig JP, Paule MG, Wang C

Early Exposure to General Anesthesia Disrupts Spatial Organization of Presynaptic Vesicles in Nerve Terminals of the Developing Rat Subiculum
Mol Neurobiol, June 2015.
Lunardi N, Oklopcic A, Prillaman M, Erisir A, Jevtovic-Todorovic V.

Long-term NMDA receptor inhibition affects NMDA receptor expression and alters glutamatergic activity in developing rat hippocampal neurons
Toxicology, June 2015. 
Sinner B, Friedrich O, Lindner R, Bundscherer A, Graf BM 

Anesthesia-related critical incidents in the perioperative period in children; a proposal for an anesthesia-related reporting system for critical incidents in children
Paediatr Anaesth, June 2015.
De Graaff JC, Sarfo MC, van Wolfswinkel L, van der Werff DB, Schouten AN

Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot – The SAFETOTS initiative.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol, June 2015. Weiss M, Vutskits L, Hansen TG, Engelhardt T

Surgical Anesthesia in Young Children Linked to Effects on IQ, Brain Structure
Cincinnati Surgical, June 08, 2015

Carbon monoxide modulates Cytochrome Oxidase Activity and Oxidative Stress in the Developing Murine Brain During Isoflurane Exposure
Free Radic Biol Med.
2015 May 29. pii: S0891-5849(15)00252-X. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2015.05.029. [Epub ahead of print] Cheng Y1, Mitchell-Flack MJ2, Wang A<2, Levy RJ



Apnea after Awake Regional and General Anesthesia in Infants: The General Anesthesia Compared to Spinal Anesthesia Study-Comparing Apnea and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes, A Randomized Controlled Trial
May 2015.  Davidson AJ, Morton NS, Arnup SJ, de Graaff JC, Disma N, Withington DE, Frawley G, Hunt RW, Hardy P, Khotcholava M, von Ungern Sternberg BS, Wilton N, Tuo P, Salvo I, Ormond G, Stargatt R, Locatelli BG, McCann ME

Predictors of Failure of Awake Regional Anesthesia for Neonatal Hernia Repair: Data from the General Anesthesia Compared to Spinal Anesthesia Study-Comparing Apnea and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes. Anesthesiology. 2015 May 14. Frawley G1, Bell G, Disma N, Withington DE, de Graaff JC, Morton NS, McCann ME, Arnup SJ, Bagshaw O, Wolfler A, Bellinger D, Davidson AJ; General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) Consortium.

Is this your (paediatric patient’s) brain on (anaesthetic) drugs?: The search for a potential neurological phenotype of anaesthesia-related neurotoxicity in humans

European Journal of Anaesthesiology, May 2015.  Loepke AW, Hansen TG.<

Risk of autistic disorder after exposure to general anaesthesia and surgery: A nationwide, retrospective matched cohort study
European Journal of Anaesthesiology, May 2015. Ko WR, Huang JY, Chiang YC, Nfor ON, Ko PC, Jan SR, Lung CC, Chang HC, Lin LY, Liaw YP

Anesthesia and the developing brain: a way forward for clinical research.
Paediatr Anaesth, May 2015. Davidson AJ, Becke K, de Graff J, Giribaldi G, Habre W, Hansen T, Hunt RW, Ing C, Loepke A, McCann ME, Ormond GD, Pini Prato A, Salvo I, Sun L, Vutskits L, Walker S, Disma N.

Impact of propofol anaesthesia on cytokine expression profiles in the developing rat brain: A randomised placebo-controlled experimental in-vivo study
Eur J Anaesthesiol, May 2015. Kargaran P, Lenglet S, Montecucco F, Mach F, Copin JC, Vutskits L

Regional anaesthesia in neonates, infants and children: An educational review
European Journal of Anaesthesiology, May 2015. Martin J

Elevation of Sestrin-2 expression attenuates Sevoflurane induced neurotoxicity
Metab Brain Dis, May 2015. Yi W, Zhang Y, Guo Y, Li D, Li X

Only extra-high dose of ketamine affects l-glutamate-induced intracellular Ca2+ elevation and neurotoxicity Neurosci Res, April 2015.  Shibuta S, Morita T, Kosaka J, Kamibavashi T, Funino Y



Dexmedetomidine Attenuates Neurotoxicity Induced by Prenatal Propofol Exposure.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol, April 2015.
Li J, Xiong M, Nadavaluru PR, Zuo W, Ye JH, Eloy JD, Bekker A.

Repeated Exposure to Ketamine-Xylazine during Early Development Impairs Motor Learning-dependent Dendritic Spine Plasticity in Adulthood
Anesthesiology, April 2015.  Huang L, Yang G

Neurodevelopmental implications of the general anesthesia in neonate and infants
Exp Neurol, April 2015.
Lee JH, Zhang J, Wei L, Yu SP

Neurotoxicity of Generic Anesthesia Agents in Infants and Children: An Orphan Research Question in Search of a Sponsor
JAMA, April 2015. Psaty BM, Platt R, Altman RB

Low-dose sevoflurane promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and facilitates the development of dentate gyrus-dependent learning in neonatal rats.
ASN Neuro. April 2015. Chen C, Shen FY, Zhao X, Zhou T, Xu DJ, Wang ZR, Wang YW

Perioperative effects of caudal and transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks for children undergoing urologic robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery.
J Pediatr Urol, April 2015. Faasse MA, Lindgren BW, Frainey BT, Marcus CR, Szczodry DM, Glaser AP, Suresh S, Gong EM

Developmental stage-dependent impact of midazolam on calbindin, calretinin and parvalbumin expression in the immature rat medial prefrontal cortex during the brain growth spurt.

Int J Dev Neurosci, April 2015. Osterop SF, Virtanen MA, Loepke JR, Joseph B, Loepke AW, Vutskits L

Surgical Injury in the Neonatal Rat Alters the Adult Pattern of Descending Modulation from the Rostroventral Medulla
Anesthesiology. 2015 Apr 13. Walker SM, Fitzgerald M, Hathway GJ

Neurosurgical conditions and procedures in infancy are associated with mortality and academic performances in adolescence: a nationwide cohort study
Paediatr Anaesth, February 2015. Hansen TG, Pedersen JK, Henneberg SW, Morton NS, Christensen K

2013 Research Articles

A systematic review and quantitative analysis of neurocognitive outcomes in children with four chronic illnesses.
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada., November 2013.

Anesthetic neurotoxicity in the newborn and infant
Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, August 29, 2013.

Safety first, safety at early age: The quagmire of neurotoxicity in pediatric anaesthesia
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, July 25, 2013.

Ketamine as Anesthetics can Damage Children’s Learning and Memory Ability
Science Codex, July 19, 2013.

Long-term effects of neonatal single or multiple isoflurane exposures on spatial memory in rats.
Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford , UK ; Glickenhaus Laboratory of Neuropsychology, Department of Neuroscience, Friedman Brain Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai , New York, NY , USA., July 2013.

Cell age-specific vulnerability of neurons to anesthetic toxicity
Department of Anesthesiology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH; Program in Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, June 2013.
Neonatal Sevoflurane Anesthesia Induces Long-Term Memory Impairment and Decreases Hippocampal PSD-95 Expression without Neuronal Loss
Anesthesiology, March 2013. Department of Anesthesia, ZhongShan hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

2011 Research Articles

The abolishment of anesthesia-induced cognitive impairment by timely protection of mitochondria in the developing rat brain: The importance of free oxygen radicals and mitochondrial integrity
Neurobiology of Disease. 2011 Dec 14. [Epub ahead of print] Boscolo A, Starr JA, Sanchez V, Lunardi N, Digruccio MR, Ori C, Erisir A, Trimmer P, Bennett J, Jevtovic-Todorovic V.

Protective Function of Nicotinamide Against Ketamine-induced Apoptotic Neurodegeneration in the Infant Rat Brain
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience. 2011 Dec 8. [Epub ahead of print] Ullah N, Ullah I, Lee HY, Naseer MI, Seok PM, Ahmed J, Kim MO.

Anesthetics and Sedatives: Toxic or Protective for the Developing Brain?
Pharmacological Research [Epub ahead of print] Ward CG, Loepke AW

Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes After Early Exposure to Anesthesia and Surgery
Pediatrics. [Epub adhead of print] Flick RP, Katusic SK, Colligan RC, Wilder RT, Voigt RG, Olson MD, Sprung J, Weaver AL, Schroeder DR, Warner DO

Anesthetic-Related Neurotoxicity and the Developing Brain: Shall We Change Practice?
Paediatric Drugs [Epub ahead of print] Vutskits L

Neurotoxicity of Anesthetic Drugs in the Developing Brain
Anesthesia & Analgesia [Epub ahead of print] Stratmann G

Neonatal Desflurane Exposure Induces More Robust Neuroapoptosis than Do Isoflurane and Sevoflurane and Impairs Working Memory
Anesthesiology [Epub ahead of print] Kodama M, Satoh Y, Otsubo Y, Araki Y, Yonamine R, Masui K, Kazama T

GABAergic Excitotoxicity Injury of the Immature Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons’ Exposure to Isoflurane Anesthesia & Analgesia [Epub ahead of print] Zhao YL, Xiang Q, Shi QY, Li SY, Tan L, Wang JT, Jin XG, Luo AL

General Anesthesia Causes Long-term Impairment of Mitochondrial Morphogenesis and Synaptic Transmission in Developing Rat Brain
Anesthesiology [Epub ahead of print] Sanchez V, Feinstein SD, Lunardi N, Joksovic PM, Boscolo A, Todorovic SM, Jevtovic-Todorovic V

Anesthesia and the developing brain: are we getting closer to understanding the truth?
Current Opinion in Anesthesiology Jevtovic-Todorovic V

Developmental Stage-dependent persistent impact of propofol anesthesia on dendritic spines in the rat medial prefrontal cortex
Anesthesiology Briner A, Nikonenko I, De Roo M, Dayer A, Muller D, Vutskits L

Propofol induces neuronal apoptosis in infant rat brain under hypoxic conditions
Brain Research Bulletin Tu S, Wang X, Yang F, Chen B, Wu S, He W, Yuan X, Zhang H, Chen P, Wei G

Are anaesthetics toxic to the brain?
British Journal of Anaesthesia Hudson AE, Hemmings HC Jr

Disruption of blastomeric F-actin: a potential early biomarker of developmental toxicity in zebrafish Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Kanungo J, Paule MG

Academic Performance in Adolescence after Inguinal Hernia Repair in Infancy: A Nationwide Cohort Study Anesthesiology Hansen TG, Pedersen JK, Henneberg SW, Pedersen DA, Murray JC, Morton NS, Christensen K

FDA considers data on potential risks of anesthesia use in infants, children
The Journal of the American Medical Association Kuehn BM

Defining safe use of anesthesia in children
The New England Journal of Medicine Rappaport B, Mellon RD, Simone A, Woodcock J

Ketamine anesthesia during the first week of life can cause long-lasting cognitive deficits in rhesus monkeys Neurotoxicology and Teratology Paule MG, Li M et al.

2018 Research Articles

2016 Research Articles

2014 Research Articles

Anesthesia in Children: Perspectives From Nonsurgical Pediatric Specialists
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, October 2014.

Clinical Research Into Anesthetic Neurotoxicity: Does Anesthesia Cause Neurological Abnormalities in Humans?
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, October 2014.

Engaging Stakeholders in Research Related to Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, October 2014.

Isoflurane Impairs the Capacity of Astrocytes to Support Neuronal Development in a Mouse Dissociated Coculture Model
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, October 2014.

Ketamine Affects the Neurogenesis of Rat Fetal Neural Stem Progenitor Cells via the PI3K/Akt-p27 Signaling Pathway.
Birth defects research. Part B, Developmental and reproductive toxicology, October 2014.

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes After Initial Childhood Anesthetic Exposure Between Ages 3 and 10 Years Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, October 2014.

Pediatric Surgeons and Anesthesiologists Expand the Dialogue on the Neurotoxicity Question, Rationale for Early and Delayed Surgeries, and Practice Changes While Awaiting Definitive Evidence
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, October 2014.

Postoperative Cognitive Function Following General Versus Regional Anesthesia: A Systematic Review Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, October 2014.

Report of the Fourth PANDA Symposium on Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, October 2014.

Review: effects of anesthetics on brain circuit formation.
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, October 2014.

2012 Research Articles

Perioperative Central Nervous System Injury in Neonates
British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2012 Dec;109 Suppl 1. McCann ME, Soriano SG.

Early Developmental Exposure to Volatile Anesthetics Causes Behavioral Defects in Caenorhabditis elegans Anesth Analg. 2012 Dec 7. [Epub ahead of print] Gentry KR, Steele LM, Sedensky MM, Morgan PG.

Newly Postulated Neurodevelopmental Risks of Pediatric Anesthesia: Theories That Could Rock Our World The Journal of Urology. J Urol. 2012 Nov 20. [Epub ahead of print] Hays SR, Deshpande JK.
Preclinical research into the effects of anesthetics on the developing brain: promises and pitfalls
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2012 Oct;24(4):362-7. Mintz CD, Wagner M, Loepke AW.

Anesthetics interfere with the polarization of developing cortical neurons
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2012 Oct;24(4):368-75. Mintz CD, Smith SC, Barrett KM, Benson DL.

Isoflurane-induced apoptosis of oligodendrocytes in the neonatal primate brain
Ann Neurol. 2012 Oct;72(4):525-35. Brambrink AM, Back SA, Riddle A, Gong X, Moravec MD, Dissen GA, Creeley CE, Dikranian KT, Olney JW.

Report of the third PANDA symposium on “Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children”
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2012 Oct;24(4):357-61. Miller TL, Park R, Sun LS.

Feasibility and pilot study of the Pediatric Anesthesia NeuroDevelopment Assessment (PANDA) project
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2012 Oct;24(4):382-8. Sun LS, Li G, DiMaggio CJ, Byrne MW, Ing C, Miller TL, Bellinger DC, Han S, McGowan FX.

Elective procedures and anesthesia in children: pediatric surgeons enter the dialogue on neurotoxicity questions, surgical options, and parental concerns
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2012 Oct;24(4):396-400. Byrne MW, Ascherman JA, Casale P, Cowles RA, Gallin PF, Maxwell LG.

Pediatric anesthesia and neurodevelopmental impairments: a Bayesian meta-analysis
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2012 Oct;24(4):376-81. DiMaggio C, Sun LS, Ing C, Li G.

Anesthesia-Induced Developmental Neurodegeneration: The Role of Neuronal Organelles
Front Neurol. 2012; 3: 141. Published online 2012 October 11. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00141 Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, A. Boscolo, V. Sanchez, N. Lunardi

Advanced pre-clinical research approaches and models to studying pediatric anesthetic neurotoxicity
Front Neurol. 2012;3:142. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00142. Epub 2012 Oct 17. Wang C.

SmartTots: A Public-Private Partnership Between the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the International Anesthesia Research Society (IARS)
Paediatr Anaesth. 2012 Oct;22(10):969-72. Ramsay JG, Roizen M, Davidson A

Propofol at Clinically Relevant Concentrations Increases Neuronal Differentiation But Is Not Toxic to Hippocampal Neural Precursor Cells In Vitro
Anesthesiology. 2012 Sep 20. [Epub ahead of print] Sall JW, Stratmann G, Leong J, Woodward E, Bickler PE

Neonatal Exposure to Sevoflurane Causes Apoptosis and Reduces nNOS Protein Expression in Rat Hippocampus
Mol Med Report. 2012 Sep;6(3):543-6. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2012.976. Epub 2012 Jul 2. Zhou X, Song FH, He W, Yang XY, Zhou ZB, Feng X, Zhou LH.

Are Anesthesia and Surgery during Infancy Associated with Altered Academic Performance during Childhood?
Anesthesiology. 2012 Sep;117(3):494-503. Block RI, Thomas JJ, Bayman EO, Choi JY, Kimble KK, Todd MM.

Long-term Differences in Language and Cognitive Function After Childhood Exposure to Anesthesia Pediatrics. 2012 Sep;130(3):e476-85. Ing C, Dimaggio C, Whitehouse A, Hegarty MK, Brady J, von Ungern-Sternberg BS, Davidson A, Wood AJ, Li G, Sun LS.

Review Article: Neuraxial Analgesia in Neonates and Infants: A Review of Clinical and Preclinical Strategies for the Development of Safety and Efficacy Data
Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2012 Sep;115(3):638-62. Epub 2012 Jul 13. Walker SM, Yaksh TL.

General Anesthesia: A Gateway to Modulate Synapse Formation and Neural Plasticity?
Vutskits L Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2012 Aug 2. [Epub ahead of print]
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder after early exposure to procedures requiring general anesthesia Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2012 Feb;87(2):120-9. Sprung J, Flick RP, Katusic SK, Colligan RC, Barbaresi WJ, Bojanić K, Welch TL, Olson MD, Hanson AC, Schroeder DR, Wilder RT, Warner DO.
Propofol Neurotoxicity Is Mediated by p75 Neurotrophin Receptor Activation

Anesthesiology. Pearn, Matthew L. M.D.; Hu, Yue B.S.; Niesman, Ingrid R. M.S.; Patel, Hemal H. Ph.D.; Drummond, John C. M.D.; Roth, David M. Ph.D., M.D.; Akassoglou, Katerina Ph.D.; Patel, Piyush M. M.D.; Head, Brian P. M.S., Ph.D.

Ketamine-induced neuroapoptosis in the fetal and neonatal rhesus macaque brain
Anesthesiology. 2012 Jan 4. [Epub ahead of print] Brambrink AM, Evers AS, Avidan MS, Farber NB, Smith DJ, Martin LD, Dissen GA, Creeley CE, Olney JW.

2009 Research Articles