Research Articles

2022 Research Articles


Disruption of hippocampal P2RX2/CaMKII/NF-κB signaling contributes to learning and memory impairment in C57BL/6 mice induced by surgery plus anesthesia in neonatal period.
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy April 2022

Does Resveratrol Prevent Sevoflurane Toxicity in Newborn Rats?
Journal of Medicinal Food April 2022

Echinacoside alleviates sevoflurane-induced cognitive dysfunction by activating FOXO1-mediated autophagy.
International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience April 2022

LncRNA SNHG12 ameliorates bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity by sponging miR-497-5p to upregulate NLRX1.
Human & Experimental Toxicology April 2022

Neonatal Anesthesia and Oxidative Stress.
Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland) April 2022

Neonatal Exposure to Propofol Interferes with the Proliferation and Differentiation of Hippocampal Neural Stem Cells and the Neurocognitive Function of Rats in Adulthood via the Akt/p27 Signaling Pathway.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences April 2022

Nonapoptotic caspases in neural development and in anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity.
Trends in Neurosciences April 2022

Post-operative behavioural disorders in paediatric anaesthesia caused by anaesthetics and sedatives.
Bratislava Medical Journal April 2022

Sevoflurane diminishes neurogenesis and promotes ferroptosis in embryonic prefrontal cortex via inhibiting nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 expression.
NeuroReport April 2022

Sevoflurane-Induced Apoptosis in the Mouse Cerebral Cortex Follows Similar Characteristics of Physiological Apoptosis.
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience April 2022

Sevoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity in the Developing Hippocampus via HIPK2/AKT/mTOR Signaling.
Neurotoxicity Research April 2022

The role and mechanism of TLR4-siRNA in the impairment of learning and memory in young mice induced by isoflurane.
Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University April 2022

The Role of Epigenetic Modifications in Neurotoxicity Induced by Neonatal General Anesthesia.
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience April 2022


Anesthesia and Developing Brains: Unanswered Questions and Proposed Paths Forward.
Anesthesiology January 11, 2022

Anesthesia and neurotoxicity study design, execution, and reporting in the nonhuman primate: A systematic review.
Paediatric Anaesthesia January 2022

Do We Have Viable Protective Strategies against Anesthesia-Induced Developmental Neurotoxicity?
International Journal of Molecular Sciences January 2022

Does inflammation mediate behavioural alterations in anaesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity?
British Journal of Anaesthesia January 2022

Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor decrease may mediate learning, memory and behavior impairments in rats after neonatal surgery
Brain research bulletin January 2022

Hippocampal SIRT1-Mediated Synaptic Plasticity and Glutamatergic Neuronal Excitability Are Involved in Prolonged Cognitive Dysfunction of Neonatal Rats Exposed to Propofol.
Molecular Neurobiology January 2022

MiRNA-384-5p targets GABRB1 to regulate ketamine-Induced Neurotoxicity in Neurons.
Turkish Neurosurgery January 2022

Neonatal exposure to sevoflurane impairs preference for social novelty in C57BL/6 female mice at early-adulthood.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications January 2022

Testosterone: much more for the brain than a sex hormone.
British Journal of Anaesthesia January 2022

Tetraethylammonium chloride reduces anaesthetic-induced neurotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans and mice.
British Journal of Anaesthesia January 2022

Identification of microRNA/target gene in the dentate gyrus of 7 day old mice following isoflurane exposure.
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis 2022

Neonatal isoflurane exposure disturbs granule cell migration in the rat dentate gyrus.
Biomedical Research 2022

2021 Research Articles

Melatonin pretreatment alleviates the long-term synaptic toxicity and dysmyelination induced by neonatal Sevoflurane exposure via MT1 receptor-mediated Wnt signaling modulation.
Journal of Pineal Research September 29, 2021

Quantitative behavioural phenotyping to investigate anaesthesia induced neurobehavioural impairment.
Scientific Reports September 29, 2021

Early-life midazolam exposure persistently changes chromatin accessibility to impair adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America September 21, 2021

The Role of Klotho Protein Against Sevoflurane-Induced Neuronal Injury.
Neurochemical Research September 8, 2021

Neonatal Anesthesia by Ketamine in Neonatal Rats Inhibits the Proliferation and Differentiation of Hippocampal Neural Stem Cells and Decreases Neurocognitive Function in Adulthood via Inhibition of the Notch1 Signaling Pathway.
Molecular Neurobiology September 3, 2021

Astrogliosis in juvenile non-human primates 2 years after infant anaesthesia exposure.
British Journal of Anaesthesia September 2021

Does Anesthesia and Surgery During Pregnancy Really Affect Learning and Behavior in the Offspring: The Holy Grail in Anesthesiology Research.
Anesthesia & Analgesia September 2021

Exposure to Sevoflurane, But Not Ketamine, During Early-life Brain Development has Long-Lasting Effects on GABAA Receptor Mediated Inhibitory Neurotransmission.
Neuroscience September 2021

The Role of Pink1-Mediated Mitochondrial Pathway in Propofol-Induced Developmental Neurotoxicity.
Neurochemical Research September 2021


Research Progress of Pharmacological Intervention of Sevoflurane-induced Nerve Injury in the Developing Brain.

Gut microbiota mediates cognitive impairment in young mice after multiple neonatal exposures to sevoflurane.
Aging June 28, 2021

Neonatal administration of a subanaesthetic dose of JM-1232(-) in mice results in no behavioural deficits in adulthood.
Scientific Reports June 18, 2021

Genistein Attenuates Isoflurane-Induced Neuroinflammation by Inhibiting TLR4-Mediated Microglial-Polarization in vivo and in vitro.
Journal of Inflammation Research June 17, 2021

Repeated Neonatal Isoflurane Exposure is Associated with Higher Susceptibility to Chronic Variable Stress-induced Behavioural and Neuro-inflammatory Alterations.
Neuroscience June 15, 2021

Testosterone is Sufficient to Impart Susceptibility to Isoflurane Neurotoxicity in Female Neonatal Rats.
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology June 15, 2021

Histone Deacetylase 2-Mediated Epigenetic Regulation is Involved in the Early Isoflurane Exposure-Related Increase in Susceptibility to Anxiety-Like Behaviour Evoked by Chronic Variable Stress in Mice.
Neurochemical Research June 8, 2021

lncRNA Xist regulates sevoflurane-induced social and emotional impairment by modulating miR-98-5p/EDEM1 signaling axis in neonatal mice.
Molecular Therapy – Nucleic Acids June 4, 2021

Parental Decision-Making for Surgery and Anesthesia in Young Children.
Western Journal of Nursing Research June 4, 2021

A decade later, there are still major issues to be addressed in paediatric anaesthesia.
Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology June 2021

Effect of operative trauma and multiple propofol anesthesia on neurodevelopment and cognitive function in developmental rats.
Journal of Zhejiang University (Medical Sciences) June 2021

Maternal sevoflurane exposure induces temporary defects in interkinetic nuclear migration of radial glial progenitors in the fetal cerebral cortex through the Notch signalling pathway.
Cell Proliferation June 2021


Evaluation of the Neuroprotective Effect of Pycnogenol in a Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury Model in Newborn Rats.
American Journal of Perinatology May 27, 2021

Recent advances in understanding cognitive and behavioural alterations after early-in-life anaesthesia exposure and new mitigation/alternative strategies in preclinical studies.
Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology May 18, 2021

Why do We Use the Concepts of Adult Anesthesia Pharmacology in Developing Brains? Will It Have an Impact on Outcomes? Challenges in Neuromonitoring and Pharmacology in Pediatric Anesthesia.
J Clin Med May 18, 2021

RIPK1/RIPK3-Mediated Necroptosis is Involved in Sevoflurane-Induced Neonatal Neurotoxicity in the Rat Hippocampus.
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology May 15, 2021

Maternal anesthesia with sevoflurane during the mid-gestation induces social interaction deficits in offspring C57BL/6 mice.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications May 14, 2021

The effect of xenon on fetal neurodevelopment following maternal sevoflurane anesthesia and laparotomy in rabbits.
Neurotoxicology and Teratology May 5, 2021

Accounting for General Anesthesia: A Pre-Op Primer and Post-Op Factor.
Pediatric Annals May 1, 2021

Downregulation of HOTAIR reduces neuronal pyroptosis by targeting miR-455-3p/NLRP1 axis in propofol-treated neurons in vitro.
Neurochemical Research May 2021

Effect of dexmedetomidine on sevoflurane-induced neurodegeneration in neonatal rats.
British Journal of Anaesthesia May 2021

Effects of sevoflurane general anesthesia during early pregnancy on AIM2 expression in the hippocampus and parietal cortex of Sprague-Dawley offspring rats.
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine May 2021

Identifying Clinical Clues in Children With Global Developmental Delay / Intellectual Disability With Abnormal Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
Journal of Child Neurology May 2021

Longitudinal associations between exposure to anesthesia and neurocognitive functioning in pediatric medulloblastoma.
European Journal of Cancer May 2021

Preventing the Long-term Effects of General Anesthesia on the Developing Brain: How Translational Research can Contribute.
Neuroscience May 2021


Sevoflurane impairs m6A-mediated mRNA translation and leads to fine motor and cognitive deficits.
Cell Biology and Toxicology April 29, 2021

The effect of sevoflurane anesthesia for dental procedure on neurocognition in children: a prospective, equivalence, controlled trial.
BMC Pediatrics April 16, 2021

Ferroptosis contributes to isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity and learning and memory impairment.
Cell Death Discovery April 7, 2021

Long Noncoding RNA SPRY4-IT1 Modulates Ketamine-Induced Neurotoxicity in Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons through EZH2.
Developmental Neuroscience April 7, 2021

Effects of general anaesthesia during pregnancy on neurocognitive development of the fetus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
British Journal of Anaesthesia April 6, 2021

Intrapartum opioid analgesia and childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes among infants born preterm.
American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM April 5, 2021

Anaesthesia, neural activity, and brain development: interneurones in the spotlight.
British Journal of Anaesthesia April 1, 2021

Ketamine inhibits neuronal differentiation by regulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling
Toxicology in Vitro April 2021

MicroRNA-1297 suppressed the Akt/GSK3 β signaling pathway and stimulated neural apoptosis in an in vivo sevoflurane exposure model
Journal of International Medical Research April 2021

Repeated exposure to propofol in the neonatal period impairs hippocampal synaptic plasticity and the recognition function of rats in adulthood
Brain Research Bulletin April 2021

Surgery requiring general anesthesia in preterm infants is associated with altered brain volumes at term equivalent age and neurodevelopmental impairment.
Pediatric Research April 2021

Anesthetic Exposure in Staged Versus Single-Stage Cleft Lip and Palate Repair: Can We Reduce Risk of Anesthesia-Induced Developmental Neurotoxicity?
Journal of Craniofacial Surgery March-April 2021


Edaravone Alleviated Propofol-Induced Neurotoxicity in Developing Hippocampus by mBDNF/TrkB/PI3K Pathway.
Drug Design, Development and Therapy March 30, 2021

Role of sedative-hypnotic agents in neurodegeneration: Effects of midazolam and thiopental on apoptosis and oxidative stress expression in neonatal and adult rat brains.
Turkish Neurosurgery March 29, 2021

Intranasal levosimendan prevents cognitive dysfunction and apoptotic response induced by repeated isoflurane exposure in newborn rats.
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology March 27, 2021

Protective Effect of GM1 Attenuates Hippocampus and Cortex Apoptosis After Ketamine Exposure in Neonatal Rat via PI3K/AKT/GSK3β Pathway.
Molecular Neurobiology March 17, 2021

Singular and short-term anesthesia exposure in the developing brain induces persistent neuronal changes consistent with chronic neurodegenerative disease.
Scientific Reports March 11, 2021

Prediction of levobupivacaine concentrations in neonates and infants following neuraxial rescue blocks.
Pediatric Anesthesia March 8, 2021

Anesthesia and the Developing Brain: A Review of Sevoflurane-induced Neurotoxicity in Pediatric Populations.
Clinical Therapeutics March 2, 2021

Dexmedetomidine and Clonidine Attenuate Sevoflurane-Induced Tau Phosphorylation and Cognitive Impairment in Young Mice via α-2 Adrenergic Receptor
Anesthesia & Analgesia March 1, 2021

Further Study Needed of the Impact of Early-Life Surgery With Associated General Anesthesia on the Risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Anesthesia & Analgesia March 2021

Predictors of Anesthetic Exposure in Pediatric MRI.
American Journal of Roentgenology March 2021

Ketamine-induced neurotoxicity in neurodevelopment: A synopsis of main pathways based on recent in vivo experimental findings.
Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology January-March 2021

2020 Research Articles


Resveratrol ameliorates sevoflurane-induced cognitive impairment by activating the SIRT1/NF-κB pathway in neonatal mice
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry December 31, 2020

Hypermethylation of EFEMP1 in the Hippocampus May Be Related to the Deficit in Spatial Memory of Rat Neonates Triggered by Repeated Administration of Propofol.
BioMed Research International December 19, 2020

Emerging Role of Long Noncoding RNAs in Perioperative Neurocognitive Disorders and Anesthetic-Induced Developmental Neurotoxicity
Anesthesia & Analgesia December 16, 2020

Hypotension and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes among children with multiple exposures to general anesthesia: Subanalysis of the Mayo Anesthesia Safety in Kids (MASK) Study
Paediatric Anaesthesia December 15, 2020

Sevoflurane-induced neuronal apoptosis in neonatal mice is prevented with intranasal administration of insulin
American Journal of Translational Research December 15, 2020

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes after Premedication with Atropine/Propofol vs Atropine/Atracurium/Sufentanil for Neonatal Intubation: 2-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Clinical Trial
The Journal of Pediatrics December 8, 2020

Sevoflurane Exposure Induces Neuronal Cell Parthanatos Initiated by DNA Damage in the Developing Brain via an Increase of Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience December 3, 2020

Neonatal exposure to ketamine disrupts developmental synapse unsilencing and predisposes adult mice for stressor-evoked anxiety
Neuropharmacology December 1, 2020

Prenatal sevoflurane exposure: Effects of iron metabolic dysfunction on offspring cognition and potential mechanism
International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience December 1, 2020


Neuroprotection of the Developing Brain by Dexmedetomidine Is Mediated by Attenuating Single Propofol-induced Hippocampal Apoptosis and Synaptic Plasticity Deficits
Experimental Neurobiology October 31, 2020

Behavior and Regional Cortical BOLD Signal Fluctuations Are Altered in Adult Rabbits After Neonatal Volatile Anesthetic Exposure
Frontiers in Neuroscience October 23, 2020

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and educational level in adolescent and adult individuals after anesthesia and abdominal surgery during infancy
PLOS One October 21, 2020

miR-455-3p alleviates propofol-induced neurotoxicity by reducing EphA4 expression in developing neurons
Biomarkers October 18, 2020

An Overview on the Mechanisms of Neuroprotection and Neurotoxicity of Isoflurane and Sevoflurane in Experimental Studies
Brain Research Bulletin October 17, 2020

MicroRNA-204-5p mediates sevoflurane-induced cytotoxicity in HT22 cells by targeting brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Histology & Histopathology October 2, 2020

Androgenic Modulation of the Chloride Transporter NKCC1 Contributes to Age-dependent Isoflurane Neurotoxicity in Male Rats
Anesthesiology October 1, 2020

A Methyltransferase Inhibitor (Decitabine) Alleviates Intergenerational Effects of Paternal Neonatal Exposure to Anesthesia With Sevoflurane
Anesthesia & Analgesia October 2020

Effects of ketamine on neurogenesis, extracellular matrix homeostasis and proliferation in hypoxia-exposed HT22 murine hippocampal neurons.
Biomedical Reports October 2020

Sevoflurane leads to learning and memory dysfunction via breaking the balance of tPA/PAI-1.
Neurochemistry International October 2020


Maternal sevoflurane exposure affects differentiation of hippocampal neural stem cells by regulating miR-410-3p and ATN1
Stem Cell Research & Therapy September 29, 2020

Anesthesia plus surgery in neonatal period impairs preference for social novelty in mice at the juvenile age.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications September 24, 2020

Early childhood general anesthesia exposure associated with later developmental delay: A national population-based cohort study
PLOS One September 24, 2020

Protective role of protocatechuic acid in sevoflurane-induced neuron apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress in mice
Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience September 24, 2020

Conditions requiring hospitalisations, more than general anaesthesia itself, are associated with diagnosis of learning disorders in children
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine September 23, 2020

Effects of early postnatal sevoflurane exposure on oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination in cerebral white matter of the rat
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy September 18, 2020

Neonatal exposure to sevoflurane expands the window of vulnerability to adverse effects of subsequent exposure to sevoflurane and alters hippocampal morphology via decitabine-sensitive mechanisms
Neuroscience Letters September 14, 2020

Sevoflurane Post-Conditioning Ameliorates Neuronal Deficits and Axon Demyelination After Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Brain Injury: Role of Microglia/Macrophage
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology September 2, 2020

Propofol inhibits the expression of Abelson nonreceptor tyrosine kinase without affecting learning or memory function in neonatal rats
Brain and Behavior September 1, 2020

Is Anesthesia Bad for the Brain? Current Knowledge on the Impact of Anesthetics on the Developing Brain.
Anesthesiology Clinics September 2020

Sevoflurane Induces Hippocampal Neuronal Apoptosis by Altering the Level of Neuropeptide Y in Neonatal Rats.
Neurochemical Research September 2020

Tau Contributes to Sevoflurane-induced Neurocognitive Impairment in Neonatal Mice
Anesthesiology September 2020

The protective effect of trilobatin against isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in mouse hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells involves the Nrf2/ARE pathway
Toxicology September 2020

The Unspoken Question!
Anesthesia & Analgesia September 2020

Yes‑associated protein protects and rescues SH‑SY5Y cells from ketamine‑induced apoptosis
Molecular Medicine Reports September 2020


LncRNA LINC00641 Sponges miR-497-5p to Ameliorate Neural Injury Induced by Anesthesia via Up-Regulating BDNF.
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience June 30, 2020

General anesthesia affecting on developing brain: evidence from animal to clinical research.
Journal of Anesthesia June 29, 2020

Autophagic Network Analysis of the Dual Effect of Sevoflurane on Neurons Associated with GABARAPL1 and 2.
BioMed Research International June 26, 2020

Dexmedetomidine in children – when should we be using it?
Anaesthesia June 24, 2020

Neonatal sevoflurane exposure induces impulsive behavioral deficit through disrupting excitatory neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex in mice.
Translational Psychiatry June 20, 2020

An appropriate level of autophagy reduces emulsified isoflurane-induced apoptosis in fetal neural stem cells.
Neural Regeneration Research June 19, 2020

Safety of anesthetic exposure on the developing brain – Do we have the answer yet?
Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology June 15, 2020

Propofol Attenuates Isoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity and Cognitive Impairment in Fetal and Offspring Mice
Anesthesia & Analgesia June 10, 2020

Use of Dexmedetomidine and Opioids as the Primary Anesthetic in Infants and Young Children: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Pediatric Anesthesia June 8, 2020

Anesthetic Drugs in Children and Pregnant Women – Implications of the Recent FDA Warning.
Harefuah June 2020

Risk of Attention Deficit Hyper Activity Disorder After Early Exposure to General Anesthesia; A Case Control Study.
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics June 2020


Optimization of Ultrasound Backscatter Spectroscopy to Assess Neurotoxic Effects of Anesthesia in the Newborn Non-human Primate Brain
Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology May 29, 2020

Neonatal Exposure to Anesthesia Leads to Cognitive Deficits in Old Age: Prevention With Intranasal Administration of Insulin in Mice
Neurotoxicity Research May 26, 2020

Neonatal Ketamine Alters High-Frequency Oscillations and Synaptic Plasticity in the Subiculum But Does not Affect Sleep Macrostructure in Adolescent Rats
Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience May 26, 2020

Neuroendocrine, epigenetic, and intergenerational effects of general anesthetics
World Journal of Psychiatry May 19, 2020

Upregulation of miR-215 attenuates propofol-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in developing neurons by targeting LATS2.
Molecular Medicine May 6, 2020

Neurotoxicity of Sub-Anesthetic Doses of Sevoflurane and Dexmedetomidine Co-Administration in Neonatal Rats
NeuroToxicology May 5, 2020

Upregulation of miR-496 Rescues Propofol-Induced Neurotoxicity by Targeting Rho Associated Coiled-Coil Containing Protein Kinase 2 (ROCK2) in Prefrontal Cortical Neurons
Current Neurovascular Research May 5, 2020

Acetyl-l-carnitine Does Not Prevent Neurodegeneration in a Rodent Model of Prolonged Neonatal Anesthesia
Neurotoxicology and Teratology May 3, 2020

Standards for Preclinical Research and Publications in Developmental Anaesthetic Neurotoxicity: Expert Opinion Statement From the SmartTots Preclinical Working Group
British Journal of Anaesthesia May 2020


Potential Neurodevelopmental Effects of Pediatric Intensive Care Sedation and Analgesia: Repetitive Benzodiazepine and Opioid Exposure Alters Expression of Glial and Synaptic Proteins in Juvenile Rats
Critical Care Explorations April 29, 2020

The Effects of Hesperidin on Neuronal Apoptosis and Cognitive Impairment in the Sevoflurane Anesthetized Rat are Mediated Through the PI3/Akt/PTEN and Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) Signaling Pathways
Medical Science Monitor April 16, 2020

HSP90 inhibitor 17AAG attenuates sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in rats and human neuroglioma cells via induction of HSP70
Journal of Translational Medicine April 15, 2020

The Role of Histone Acetylation in the Sevoflurane-induced Inhibition of Neurogenesis in the Hippocampi of Young Mice.
Neuroscience April 15, 2020

Pediatric anesthesiologists’ attitudes about neurotoxicity and the FDA drug safety communication
Pediatric Anesthesia April 12, 2020

Iron Overload Contributes to General Anaesthesia-Induced Neurotoxicity and Cognitive Deficits
Journal of Neuroinflammation April 11, 2020

PDE-7 Inhibitor BRL-50481 Reduces Neurodegeneration and Long-Term Memory Deficits in Mice Following Sevoflurane Exposure
ACS Chemical Neuroscience April 9, 2020

Sevoflurane Inhibits Neuronal Migration and Axon Growth in the Developing Mouse Cerebral Cortex
Aging April 9, 2020

Effect of xenon and dexmedetomidine as adjuncts for general anesthesia on postoperative emergence delirium after elective cardiac catheterization in children: study protocol for a randomized, controlled, pilot trial
Trials April 3, 2020

How Should Trainees’ Influences on Postoperative Outcomes Be Disclosed?
AMA Journal of Ethics April 2020


False Interpretation of Scientific Data Leads to Biased Conclusions About the Association Between Cesarean Deliveries Under General Anesthesia and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders February 19, 2020

Resveratrol Mitigates Sevoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity by the SIRT1-Dependent Regulation of BDNF Expression in Developing Mice
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity February 19, 2020

Neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine against the ketamine-induced disturbance of proliferation and differentiation of developing neural stem cells in the subventricular zone
BMC Neuroscience February 16, 2020

Cyclophilin D Contributes to Anesthesia Neurotoxicity in the Developing Brain
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology February 11, 2020

MicroRNA-582-5p reduces propofol-induced apoptosis in developing neurons by targeting ROCK1.
Current Neurovascular Research February 7, 2020

Definition of Clinical Outcomes in Pediatric Anesthesia Research: It Is Like the Tower of Babel!
Anesthesia & Analgesia February 2020

Desflurane and Surgery Exposure During Pregnancy Decrease Synaptic Integrity and Induce Functional Deficits in Juvenile Offspring Mice.
Neurochemical Research February 2020

Exogenous GM1 Ganglioside Attenuates Ketamine-Induced Neurocognitive Impairment in the Developing Rat Brain
Anesthesia & Analgesia February 2020

General anesthesia risk across pediatric surgical specialties: Low in otolaryngology
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology February 2020


Dexmedetomidine Alleviates Neurogenesis Damage Following Neonatal Midazolam Exposure in Rats through JNK and P38 MAPK Pathways
ACS Chemical Neuroscience January 30, 2020

Effects of embryonic propofol exposure on axonal growth and locomotor activity in zebrafish
Journal of Applied Toxicology January 30, 2020

The mTOR Inhibitor Rapamycin Prevents General Anesthesia-Induced Changes in Synaptic Transmission and Mitochondrial Respiration in Late Postnatal Mice
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience January 28, 2020

Downregulation of CDK5 Restores Sevoflurane-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction by Promoting SIRT1-Mediated Autophagy.
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology January 16, 2020

Conflicting Actions of Inhalational Anesthetics, Neurotoxicity and Neuroprotection, Mediated by the Unfolded Protein Response
International Journal of Molecular Sciences January 10, 2020

General Anesthetic-Induced Neurotoxicity in the Immature Brain: Reevaluating the Confounding Factors in the Preclinical Studies.
Hindawi January 8, 2020

Exposure to Surgery and Anesthesia in Early Childhood and Subsequent Use of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Medications.
Anesthesia & Analgesia January 8, 2020

Paediatric Anaesthesia Neurotoxicity: Bring Back the Papoose Board?
Oral Health January 7, 2020

Effects of Xenon-Based Anesthetic Exposure on the Expression Levels of Polysialic Acid Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (PSA-NCAM) on Human Neural Stem Cell-Derived Neurons.
Molecular Neurobiology January 2020

General anesthesia in infants: neurobiological and neuropsychological concerns.
Boletin medico del Hospital Infantil de Mexico 2020

Ketamine exerts neurotoxic effects on the offspring of pregnant rats via the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research January 2020

NR2B receptor- and calpain-mediated KCC2 cleavage resulted in cognitive deficiency exposure to isoflurane
NeuroToxicology January 2020

Paeonol attenuates isoflurane anesthesia-induced hippocampal neurotoxicity via modulation of JNK/ERK/P38MAPK pathway and regulates histone acetylation in neonatal rat.
Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine January 2020

Vitexin improves neuron apoptosis and memory impairment induced by isoflurane via regulation of miR-409 expression.
Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine January 2020

2019 Research Articles


Maternal exposure to volatile anesthetics induces IL-6 in fetal brains and affects neuronal development.
European Journal of Pharmacology November 15, 2019

Traditional Chinese medicine, Kami-Shoyo-San protects ketamine-induced neurotoxicity in human embryonic stem cell-differentiated neurons through activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.
NeuroReport November 6, 2019

“Pediatric Anesthetic Neurotoxicity” Time to Stop!
Anesthesia & Analgesia November 5, 2019

Neurodevelopmental Effect of General Anesthesia on the Pediatric Patient.
Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus November 1, 2019

Beyond Anesthesia Toxicity: Anesthetic Considerations to Lessen the Risk of Neonatal Neurological Injury
Anesthesia & Analgesia November 2019

Dexmedetomidine pretreatment attenuates isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity via inhibiting the TLR2/NF-κB signaling pathway in neonatal rats
Experimental and Molecular Pathology November 2019

Early Postnatal Exposure to Isoflurane Disrupts Oligodendrocyte Development and Myelin Formation in the Mouse Hippocampus
Perioperative Medicine November 2019

Sirtuin 2 Inhibition Attenuates Sevoflurane-Induced Learning and Memory Deficits in Developing Rats via Modulating Microglial Activation
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology November 2019

Using animal models to evaluate the functional consequences of anesthesia during early neurodevelopment
Neurobiology of Learning and Memory November 2019

Voluntary Exercise Rescues the Spatial Memory Deficit Associated With Early Life Isoflurane Exposure in Male Rats
Anesthesia & Analgesia November 2019


Should nitrous oxide ever be used in oncology patients receiving methotrexate therapy?
Pediatric Anesthesia October 31, 2019

MicroRNA-665 mediates propofol-induced cell apoptosis in human stem cell-derived neurons
Bioengineered October 26, 2019

Influence of general anesthetic exposure in developing brain on cognition and the underlying mechanisms
October 25, 2019

Sedation practices in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Pediatric Blood & Cancer October 18, 2019

Distinct, sex-dependent miRNA signatures in piglet hippocampus induced by a clinically relevant isoflurane exposure: a pilot study.
Journal of Anesthesia October 14, 2019

General anesthetic neurotoxicity in the young: Mechanism and prevention.
Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews October 10, 2019

Cognitive impairment and transcriptomic profile in hippocampus of young mice after multiple neonatal exposures to sevoflurane.
Aging October 3, 2019

Protective Effects of Xenon on Propofol-Induced Neurotoxicity in Human Neural Stem Cell-Derived Models.
Molecular Neurobiology October 2, 2019

The expression of glucose transporters and mitochondrial division and fusion proteins in rats exposed to hypoxic preconditioning to attenuate propofol neurotoxicity.
International Journal of Neuroscience October 2, 2019

Hypoxia, hypercarbia, and mortality reporting in studies of anaesthesia-related neonatal neurodevelopmental delay in rodent models: A systematic review.
European Journal of Anaesthesiology October 2019

LncRNA MALAT1 is involved in sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in developing rats.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry October 2019

Maternal surgery during pregnancy has a transient adverse effect on the developing fetal rabbit brain
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology October 2019

Mild hypothermia ameliorates anesthesia toxicity in the neonatal macaque brain
Neurobiology of Disease October 2019

The positive allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors mRNA in immature hippocampal rat neurons by midazolam affects receptor expression and induces apoptosis.
International Journal of Neuroscience October 2019

Xenon reduces sevoflurane-induced respiratory depression and neuro-apoptosis in immature rats
British Journal of Anaesthesia October 2019

Anesthesia for pediatric ophthalmologic surgery
Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus April 14, 2019

Combined spinal/caudal catheter anesthesia: extending the boundaries of regional anesthesia for complex pediatric urological surgery
Journal of Pediatric Urology April 11, 2019

Dexmedetomidine reduced sevoflurane-induced neurodegeneration and long-term memory deficits in neonatal rats
International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience April 5, 2019

Erythropoietin Reduces Neurodegeneration and Long-Term Memory Deficits Following Sevoflurane Exposure in Neonatal Rats
Neurotoxicity Research April 5, 2019

Quantitative ultrasound and apoptotic death in the neonatal primate brain
Neurobiology of Disease April 2, 2019

Assessing Long-term Neurodevelopmental Outcome Following General Anesthesia in Early Childhood: Challenges and Opportunities
Anesthesia & Analgesia April 2019

Caudal epidural blocks in paediatric patients: a review and practical considerations
British Journal of Anaesthesia April 2019

Female rats are more vulnerable to lasting cognitive impairment after isoflurane exposure on postnatal day 4 than 7
British Journal of Anaesthesia April 2019

Lasting effects of general anesthetics on the brain in the young and elderly: “mixed picture” of neurotoxicity, neuroprotection and cognitive impairment.
Journal of Anesthesia April 2019

Neuroinflammation in the Developing Brain: Risk Factors, Involvement of Microglial Cells, and Implication for Early Anesthesia
Anesthesia & Analgesia April 2019

Performance on the Operant Test Battery in young children exposed to procedures requiring general anaesthesia: the MASK study
British Journal of Anaesthesia April 2019

Effects of repeated exposure to different concentrations of sevoflurane on the neonatal mouse hippocampus.
Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology. January – February 2019

Neurotoxicity of anesthetics: Mechanisms and meaning from mouse intervention studies
Neurotoxicology and Teratology January – February 2019

Neurotoxicity of general anesthetics in children: evidence and uncertainties.
Current Opinion in Pediatrics January 31, 2019

Juvenile Rats Show Altered Gut Microbiota After Exposure to Isoflurane as Neonates
Neurochemical Research January 2, 2019

Astragaloside suppresses tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 5 signaling pathway and alleviates neurodegenerative changes in retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by isoflurane.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry January 2019

A Review of Clinical Poster Presentations at the Sixth Biennial Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopment Assessment (PANDA) Symposium
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

An Open Label Pilot Study of a Dexmedetomidine-Remifentanil-Caudal Anesthetic for Infant Lower Abdominal/Lower Extremity Surgery: The T REX Pilot Study.
Pediatric Anesthesia. January 2019

Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children: Many Important Questions Remain Unanswered
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

Anesthesia Exposure in Children, Practitioners Respond to the 2016 FDA Drug Safety Communication
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

Developmental Neurotoxicity: An Update
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

Early Developmental Exposure to Repetitive Long Duration of Midazolam Sedation Causes Behavioral and Synaptic Alterations in a Rodent Model of Neurodevelopment
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

Engaging Stakeholders to Promote Safe Anesthesia and Sedation Care in Young Children
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

Epidemiology and Resource Utilization of Simple Febrile Seizure-associated Hospitalizations in the United States, 2003-2012
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

Introduction to “Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children”: A Supplement from the Sixth Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopmental Assessment (PANDA) Symposium
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

Outcomes Research in Vulnerable Pediatric Populations
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

Prolonged Anesthetic Exposure in Children and Factors Associated With Exposure Duration
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

Reaching Parents Through an Online Community
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

Report on the Sixth Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopmental Assessment (PANDA) Symposium, “Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children.”
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

SmartTots Outcomes Workshop 2017: Notes From a Round Table Discussion About Outcome Measures
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

Summary of Preclinical Poster Presentations at the Sixth Biennial Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopment Assessment (PANDA) Symposium
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

The association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and general anaesthesia – a narrative review
Anaesthesia January 2019

Using Neuroimaging to Study the Effects of Pain, Analgesia, and Anesthesia on Brain Development
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology January 2019

2018 Research Articles

2017 Research Articles

Long-duration general anesthesia influences the intelligence of school age children
BMC Anesthesiology. December 19, 2017

Effects of short-term exposure to sevoflurane on the survival, proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation of neural precursor cells derived from human embryonic stem cells.
Journal of Anesthesia. December 2017

More than 3 hours and less than 3 years: Safety of anaesthetic procedures in infants less than 3 years old subjected to surgery for more the 3 hours
Anales de Pediatría December 2017

Pediatric Anesthesia Considerations for Interventional Radiology
Anesthesiology December 2017

Challenges in the anesthetic management of ambulatory patients in the MRI suites
Current Opinion in Anestiology December 2017

Xenon as an adjuvant to sevoflurane anesthesia in children younger than 4 years of age, undergoing interventional or diagnostic cardiac catheterization: A randomized controlled clinical trial
Paediatric anaesthesia December 2017

Caffeine combined with sedative/anesthetic drugs triggers widespread neuroapoptosis in a mouse model of prematurity
The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine December 2017

Hydrogen gas attenuates sevoflurane neurotoxicity through inhibiting nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells signaling and proinflammatory cytokine release in neonatal rats
NeuroRepprt December 6, 2017

Protective effects of a green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, against sevoflurane-induced neuronal apoptosis involve regulation of CREB/BDNF/TrkB and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in neonatal mice
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 2017 Dec

Exposure of Developing Brain to General Anesthesia: What Is the Animal Evidence?
Anesthesiology. 2017 Dec 22

2016 Research Articles

2015 Research Articles

Neonatal anesthesia: how we manage our most vulnerable patients
Korean J Anesthesiol. 2015 Oct; 68(5): 434–441.
Published online 2015 Sep 30.



Efficacy of rutin in inhibiting neuronal apoptosis and cognitive disturbances in sevoflurane or propofol exposed neonatal mice
Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015; 8(8): 14397–14409.
Published online 2015 Aug 15.



Pediatric dental sedation: challenges and opportunities
Clin Cosmet Investig Dent. 2015; 7: 97–106.
Published online 2015 Aug 26.


Long-Term Behavioral Effects in a Rat Model of Prolonged Postnatal Morphine Exposure
Behavioral Neuroscience, Vol 129(5),
Craig, M. M., & Bajic, D. (2015, July 27).



Long-term action of propofol on cognitive function and hippocampal neuroapoptosis in neonatal rats
Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015; 8(7): 10696–10704.
Published online 2015 Jul 15.

Neuroprotective properties of vitamin C on equipotent anesthetic concentrations of desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane in high fat diet fed neonatal mice
Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015; 8(7): 10444–10458.
Published online 2015 Jul 15.

Anesthetic use in newborn infants: the urgent need for rigorous evaluation
Pediatr Res. 2015 Jul; 78(1): 2–6.
Published online 2015 Apr 8.

Cognition and Brain Structure Following Early Childhood Surgery With Anesthesia
Pediatrics, June 2015
Barynia Backeljauw, Scott K. Holland, Mekibib Altaye, Andreas W. Loepke

Propofol: A Review of its Role in Pediatric Anesthesia and Sedation
CNS Drugs, July 2015, Volume 29, Issue 7, pp 543-563

Age-dependent electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns during sevoflurane general anesthesia in infants
eLIFE, July 2015

Age-dependency of sevoflurane-induced electroencephalogram dynamics in children
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 2015

Cognition and Brain Structure Following Early Childhood Surgery With Anesthesia
Pediatrics, June 2015
Backeljawu B, Holland SK, Altaye M, Loepke AW



microRNA Expression Profiling of Propofol-Treated Developing Rat Hippocampal
DNA Cell Biol, June 2015.
Sun W, Pei L

Regional (spinal, epidural, caudal) versus general anaesthesia in preterm infants undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy in early infancy
Cochrane Database Syst Rev., June 2015.
Jones LJ, Craven PD, Lakkundi A, Foster JP, Badawi N

Ketamine-Induced Toxicity in Neurons Differentiated from Neural Stem Cells
Mol Neurobiol, June 2015.
Slikker W Jr, Liu F, Rainosek SW, Patterson TA, Sadovova N, Hanig JP, Paule MG, Wang C

Early Exposure to General Anesthesia Disrupts Spatial Organization of Presynaptic Vesicles in Nerve Terminals of the Developing Rat Subiculum
Mol Neurobiol, June 2015.
Lunardi N, Oklopcic A, Prillaman M, Erisir A, Jevtovic-Todorovic V.

Long-term NMDA receptor inhibition affects NMDA receptor expression and alters glutamatergic activity in developing rat hippocampal neurons
Toxicology, June 2015. 
Sinner B, Friedrich O, Lindner R, Bundscherer A, Graf BM 

Anesthesia-related critical incidents in the perioperative period in children; a proposal for an anesthesia-related reporting system for critical incidents in children
Paediatr Anaesth, June 2015.
De Graaff JC, Sarfo MC, van Wolfswinkel L, van der Werff DB, Schouten AN

Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot – The SAFETOTS initiative.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol, June 2015. Weiss M, Vutskits L, Hansen TG, Engelhardt T

Surgical Anesthesia in Young Children Linked to Effects on IQ, Brain Structure
Cincinnati Surgical, June 08, 2015

Carbon monoxide modulates Cytochrome Oxidase Activity and Oxidative Stress in the Developing Murine Brain During Isoflurane Exposure
Free Radic Biol Med.
2015 May 29. pii: S0891-5849(15)00252-X. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2015.05.029. [Epub ahead of print] Cheng Y1, Mitchell-Flack MJ2, Wang A<2, Levy RJ



Apnea after Awake Regional and General Anesthesia in Infants: The General Anesthesia Compared to Spinal Anesthesia Study-Comparing Apnea and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes, A Randomized Controlled Trial
May 2015.  Davidson AJ, Morton NS, Arnup SJ, de Graaff JC, Disma N, Withington DE, Frawley G, Hunt RW, Hardy P, Khotcholava M, von Ungern Sternberg BS, Wilton N, Tuo P, Salvo I, Ormond G, Stargatt R, Locatelli BG, McCann ME

Predictors of Failure of Awake Regional Anesthesia for Neonatal Hernia Repair: Data from the General Anesthesia Compared to Spinal Anesthesia Study-Comparing Apnea and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes. Anesthesiology. 2015 May 14. Frawley G1, Bell G, Disma N, Withington DE, de Graaff JC, Morton NS, McCann ME, Arnup SJ, Bagshaw O, Wolfler A, Bellinger D, Davidson AJ; General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) Consortium.

Is this your (paediatric patient’s) brain on (anaesthetic) drugs?: The search for a potential neurological phenotype of anaesthesia-related neurotoxicity in humans

European Journal of Anaesthesiology, May 2015.  Loepke AW, Hansen TG.<

Risk of autistic disorder after exposure to general anaesthesia and surgery: A nationwide, retrospective matched cohort study
European Journal of Anaesthesiology, May 2015. Ko WR, Huang JY, Chiang YC, Nfor ON, Ko PC, Jan SR, Lung CC, Chang HC, Lin LY, Liaw YP

Anesthesia and the developing brain: a way forward for clinical research.
Paediatr Anaesth, May 2015. Davidson AJ, Becke K, de Graff J, Giribaldi G, Habre W, Hansen T, Hunt RW, Ing C, Loepke A, McCann ME, Ormond GD, Pini Prato A, Salvo I, Sun L, Vutskits L, Walker S, Disma N.

Impact of propofol anaesthesia on cytokine expression profiles in the developing rat brain: A randomised placebo-controlled experimental in-vivo study
Eur J Anaesthesiol, May 2015. Kargaran P, Lenglet S, Montecucco F, Mach F, Copin JC, Vutskits L

Regional anaesthesia in neonates, infants and children: An educational review
European Journal of Anaesthesiology, May 2015. Martin J

Elevation of Sestrin-2 expression attenuates Sevoflurane induced neurotoxicity
Metab Brain Dis, May 2015. Yi W, Zhang Y, Guo Y, Li D, Li X

Only extra-high dose of ketamine affects l-glutamate-induced intracellular Ca2+ elevation and neurotoxicity Neurosci Res, April 2015.  Shibuta S, Morita T, Kosaka J, Kamibavashi T, Funino Y



Dexmedetomidine Attenuates Neurotoxicity Induced by Prenatal Propofol Exposure.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol, April 2015.
Li J, Xiong M, Nadavaluru PR, Zuo W, Ye JH, Eloy JD, Bekker A.

Repeated Exposure to Ketamine-Xylazine during Early Development Impairs Motor Learning-dependent Dendritic Spine Plasticity in Adulthood
Anesthesiology, April 2015.  Huang L, Yang G

Neurodevelopmental implications of the general anesthesia in neonate and infants
Exp Neurol, April 2015.
Lee JH, Zhang J, Wei L, Yu SP

Neurotoxicity of Generic Anesthesia Agents in Infants and Children: An Orphan Research Question in Search of a Sponsor
JAMA, April 2015. Psaty BM, Platt R, Altman RB

Low-dose sevoflurane promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and facilitates the development of dentate gyrus-dependent learning in neonatal rats.
ASN Neuro. April 2015. Chen C, Shen FY, Zhao X, Zhou T, Xu DJ, Wang ZR, Wang YW

Perioperative effects of caudal and transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks for children undergoing urologic robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery.
J Pediatr Urol, April 2015. Faasse MA, Lindgren BW, Frainey BT, Marcus CR, Szczodry DM, Glaser AP, Suresh S, Gong EM

Developmental stage-dependent impact of midazolam on calbindin, calretinin and parvalbumin expression in the immature rat medial prefrontal cortex during the brain growth spurt.

Int J Dev Neurosci, April 2015. Osterop SF, Virtanen MA, Loepke JR, Joseph B, Loepke AW, Vutskits L

Surgical Injury in the Neonatal Rat Alters the Adult Pattern of Descending Modulation from the Rostroventral Medulla
Anesthesiology. 2015 Apr 13. Walker SM, Fitzgerald M, Hathway GJ

Neurosurgical conditions and procedures in infancy are associated with mortality and academic performances in adolescence: a nationwide cohort study
Paediatr Anaesth, February 2015. Hansen TG, Pedersen JK, Henneberg SW, Morton NS, Christensen K

2014 Research Articles

Anesthesia in Children: Perspectives From Nonsurgical Pediatric Specialists
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, October 2014.

Clinical Research Into Anesthetic Neurotoxicity: Does Anesthesia Cause Neurological Abnormalities in Humans?
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, October 2014.

Engaging Stakeholders in Research Related to Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, October 2014.

Isoflurane Impairs the Capacity of Astrocytes to Support Neuronal Development in a Mouse Dissociated Coculture Model
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, October 2014.

Ketamine Affects the Neurogenesis of Rat Fetal Neural Stem Progenitor Cells via the PI3K/Akt-p27 Signaling Pathway.
Birth defects research. Part B, Developmental and reproductive toxicology, October 2014.

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes After Initial Childhood Anesthetic Exposure Between Ages 3 and 10 Years Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, October 2014.

Pediatric Surgeons and Anesthesiologists Expand the Dialogue on the Neurotoxicity Question, Rationale for Early and Delayed Surgeries, and Practice Changes While Awaiting Definitive Evidence
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, October 2014.

Postoperative Cognitive Function Following General Versus Regional Anesthesia: A Systematic Review Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, October 2014.

Report of the Fourth PANDA Symposium on Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, October 2014.

Review: effects of anesthetics on brain circuit formation.
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, October 2014.

2013 Research Articles

A systematic review and quantitative analysis of neurocognitive outcomes in children with four chronic illnesses.
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada., November 2013.

Anesthetic neurotoxicity in the newborn and infant
Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, August 29, 2013.

Safety first, safety at early age: The quagmire of neurotoxicity in pediatric anaesthesia
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, July 25, 2013.

Ketamine as Anesthetics can Damage Children’s Learning and Memory Ability
Science Codex, July 19, 2013.

Long-term effects of neonatal single or multiple isoflurane exposures on spatial memory in rats.
Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford , UK ; Glickenhaus Laboratory of Neuropsychology, Department of Neuroscience, Friedman Brain Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai , New York, NY , USA., July 2013.

Cell age-specific vulnerability of neurons to anesthetic toxicity
Department of Anesthesiology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH; Program in Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, June 2013.
Neonatal Sevoflurane Anesthesia Induces Long-Term Memory Impairment and Decreases Hippocampal PSD-95 Expression without Neuronal Loss
Anesthesiology, March 2013. Department of Anesthesia, ZhongShan hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

2012 Research Articles

Perioperative Central Nervous System Injury in Neonates
British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2012 Dec;109 Suppl 1. McCann ME, Soriano SG.

Early Developmental Exposure to Volatile Anesthetics Causes Behavioral Defects in Caenorhabditis elegans Anesth Analg. 2012 Dec 7. [Epub ahead of print] Gentry KR, Steele LM, Sedensky MM, Morgan PG.

Newly Postulated Neurodevelopmental Risks of Pediatric Anesthesia: Theories That Could Rock Our World The Journal of Urology. J Urol. 2012 Nov 20. [Epub ahead of print] Hays SR, Deshpande JK.
Preclinical research into the effects of anesthetics on the developing brain: promises and pitfalls
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2012 Oct;24(4):362-7. Mintz CD, Wagner M, Loepke AW.

Anesthetics interfere with the polarization of developing cortical neurons
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2012 Oct;24(4):368-75. Mintz CD, Smith SC, Barrett KM, Benson DL.

Isoflurane-induced apoptosis of oligodendrocytes in the neonatal primate brain
Ann Neurol. 2012 Oct;72(4):525-35. Brambrink AM, Back SA, Riddle A, Gong X, Moravec MD, Dissen GA, Creeley CE, Dikranian KT, Olney JW.

Report of the third PANDA symposium on “Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children”
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2012 Oct;24(4):357-61. Miller TL, Park R, Sun LS.

Feasibility and pilot study of the Pediatric Anesthesia NeuroDevelopment Assessment (PANDA) project
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2012 Oct;24(4):382-8. Sun LS, Li G, DiMaggio CJ, Byrne MW, Ing C, Miller TL, Bellinger DC, Han S, McGowan FX.

Elective procedures and anesthesia in children: pediatric surgeons enter the dialogue on neurotoxicity questions, surgical options, and parental concerns
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2012 Oct;24(4):396-400. Byrne MW, Ascherman JA, Casale P, Cowles RA, Gallin PF, Maxwell LG.

Pediatric anesthesia and neurodevelopmental impairments: a Bayesian meta-analysis
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2012 Oct;24(4):376-81. DiMaggio C, Sun LS, Ing C, Li G.

Anesthesia-Induced Developmental Neurodegeneration: The Role of Neuronal Organelles
Front Neurol. 2012; 3: 141. Published online 2012 October 11. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00141 Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, A. Boscolo, V. Sanchez, N. Lunardi

Advanced pre-clinical research approaches and models to studying pediatric anesthetic neurotoxicity
Front Neurol. 2012;3:142. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00142. Epub 2012 Oct 17. Wang C.

SmartTots: A Public-Private Partnership Between the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the International Anesthesia Research Society (IARS)
Paediatr Anaesth. 2012 Oct;22(10):969-72. Ramsay JG, Roizen M, Davidson A

Propofol at Clinically Relevant Concentrations Increases Neuronal Differentiation But Is Not Toxic to Hippocampal Neural Precursor Cells In Vitro
Anesthesiology. 2012 Sep 20. [Epub ahead of print] Sall JW, Stratmann G, Leong J, Woodward E, Bickler PE

Neonatal Exposure to Sevoflurane Causes Apoptosis and Reduces nNOS Protein Expression in Rat Hippocampus
Mol Med Report. 2012 Sep;6(3):543-6. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2012.976. Epub 2012 Jul 2. Zhou X, Song FH, He W, Yang XY, Zhou ZB, Feng X, Zhou LH.

Are Anesthesia and Surgery during Infancy Associated with Altered Academic Performance during Childhood?
Anesthesiology. 2012 Sep;117(3):494-503. Block RI, Thomas JJ, Bayman EO, Choi JY, Kimble KK, Todd MM.

Long-term Differences in Language and Cognitive Function After Childhood Exposure to Anesthesia Pediatrics. 2012 Sep;130(3):e476-85. Ing C, Dimaggio C, Whitehouse A, Hegarty MK, Brady J, von Ungern-Sternberg BS, Davidson A, Wood AJ, Li G, Sun LS.

Review Article: Neuraxial Analgesia in Neonates and Infants: A Review of Clinical and Preclinical Strategies for the Development of Safety and Efficacy Data
Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2012 Sep;115(3):638-62. Epub 2012 Jul 13. Walker SM, Yaksh TL.

General Anesthesia: A Gateway to Modulate Synapse Formation and Neural Plasticity?
Vutskits L Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2012 Aug 2. [Epub ahead of print]
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder after early exposure to procedures requiring general anesthesia Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2012 Feb;87(2):120-9. Sprung J, Flick RP, Katusic SK, Colligan RC, Barbaresi WJ, Bojanić K, Welch TL, Olson MD, Hanson AC, Schroeder DR, Wilder RT, Warner DO.
Propofol Neurotoxicity Is Mediated by p75 Neurotrophin Receptor Activation

Anesthesiology. Pearn, Matthew L. M.D.; Hu, Yue B.S.; Niesman, Ingrid R. M.S.; Patel, Hemal H. Ph.D.; Drummond, John C. M.D.; Roth, David M. Ph.D., M.D.; Akassoglou, Katerina Ph.D.; Patel, Piyush M. M.D.; Head, Brian P. M.S., Ph.D.

Ketamine-induced neuroapoptosis in the fetal and neonatal rhesus macaque brain
Anesthesiology. 2012 Jan 4. [Epub ahead of print] Brambrink AM, Evers AS, Avidan MS, Farber NB, Smith DJ, Martin LD, Dissen GA, Creeley CE, Olney JW.

2011 Research Articles

The abolishment of anesthesia-induced cognitive impairment by timely protection of mitochondria in the developing rat brain: The importance of free oxygen radicals and mitochondrial integrity
Neurobiology of Disease. 2011 Dec 14. [Epub ahead of print] Boscolo A, Starr JA, Sanchez V, Lunardi N, Digruccio MR, Ori C, Erisir A, Trimmer P, Bennett J, Jevtovic-Todorovic V.

Protective Function of Nicotinamide Against Ketamine-induced Apoptotic Neurodegeneration in the Infant Rat Brain
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience. 2011 Dec 8. [Epub ahead of print] Ullah N, Ullah I, Lee HY, Naseer MI, Seok PM, Ahmed J, Kim MO.

Anesthetics and Sedatives: Toxic or Protective for the Developing Brain?
Pharmacological Research [Epub ahead of print] Ward CG, Loepke AW

Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes After Early Exposure to Anesthesia and Surgery
Pediatrics. [Epub adhead of print] Flick RP, Katusic SK, Colligan RC, Wilder RT, Voigt RG, Olson MD, Sprung J, Weaver AL, Schroeder DR, Warner DO

Anesthetic-Related Neurotoxicity and the Developing Brain: Shall We Change Practice?
Paediatric Drugs [Epub ahead of print] Vutskits L

Neurotoxicity of Anesthetic Drugs in the Developing Brain
Anesthesia & Analgesia [Epub ahead of print] Stratmann G

Neonatal Desflurane Exposure Induces More Robust Neuroapoptosis than Do Isoflurane and Sevoflurane and Impairs Working Memory
Anesthesiology [Epub ahead of print] Kodama M, Satoh Y, Otsubo Y, Araki Y, Yonamine R, Masui K, Kazama T

GABAergic Excitotoxicity Injury of the Immature Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons’ Exposure to Isoflurane Anesthesia & Analgesia [Epub ahead of print] Zhao YL, Xiang Q, Shi QY, Li SY, Tan L, Wang JT, Jin XG, Luo AL

General Anesthesia Causes Long-term Impairment of Mitochondrial Morphogenesis and Synaptic Transmission in Developing Rat Brain
Anesthesiology [Epub ahead of print] Sanchez V, Feinstein SD, Lunardi N, Joksovic PM, Boscolo A, Todorovic SM, Jevtovic-Todorovic V

Anesthesia and the developing brain: are we getting closer to understanding the truth?
Current Opinion in Anesthesiology Jevtovic-Todorovic V

Developmental Stage-dependent persistent impact of propofol anesthesia on dendritic spines in the rat medial prefrontal cortex
Anesthesiology Briner A, Nikonenko I, De Roo M, Dayer A, Muller D, Vutskits L

Propofol induces neuronal apoptosis in infant rat brain under hypoxic conditions
Brain Research Bulletin Tu S, Wang X, Yang F, Chen B, Wu S, He W, Yuan X, Zhang H, Chen P, Wei G

Are anaesthetics toxic to the brain?
British Journal of Anaesthesia Hudson AE, Hemmings HC Jr

Disruption of blastomeric F-actin: a potential early biomarker of developmental toxicity in zebrafish Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Kanungo J, Paule MG

Academic Performance in Adolescence after Inguinal Hernia Repair in Infancy: A Nationwide Cohort Study Anesthesiology Hansen TG, Pedersen JK, Henneberg SW, Pedersen DA, Murray JC, Morton NS, Christensen K

FDA considers data on potential risks of anesthesia use in infants, children
The Journal of the American Medical Association Kuehn BM

Defining safe use of anesthesia in children
The New England Journal of Medicine Rappaport B, Mellon RD, Simone A, Woodcock J

Ketamine anesthesia during the first week of life can cause long-lasting cognitive deficits in rhesus monkeys Neurotoxicology and Teratology Paule MG, Li M et al.

2009 Research Articles