News and EventsSmartTots and IARS News, Press Releases and Events
SmartTots – Perspectives from the Front Lines
Millions of children undergo surgery annually. Recent studies suggest there may be reason for concern. This video, featuring Dr. Dean Andropoulos, Dr. Peter Davis, and Dr. Caleb Ing, provides a summary as to why research is needed and the type that is needed.
SmartTots to Help Make Anesthetics and Sedatives Safer for Children
Dr. Janet Woodcock, director of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research at the Food and Drug Administration, and Dr. Michael Roizen, of the International Anesthesia Research Society, unveil a new partnership that aims to make anesthesia safer for children.
Pediatric Anesthesia Questions and Myths-Mayo Clinic
Dr. Randall Flick at Mayo Clinic “debunks myths” and answers common questions raised by parents in regard to anesthesia.
Initially used as an analgesic and anesthetic, ketamine has unfortunately been abused as a popular recreational party drug due to its psychotropic effects. Over the last decade, ketamine has also emerged as an effective rapid-onset anti-depressant. The increasingly widespread use and misuse of the drug in infants and pregnant women has posed a concern about the neurotoxicity of ketamine to the immature brains of developing fetuses and children.
Isoflurane exposure in infant rats acutely increases aquaporin 4 and does not cause neurocognitive impairment
Isoflurane is commonly used in pediatric population, but its mechanism of action in cognition is unclear. Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) regulates water content in blood, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid. Various studies have provided evidence for the role of AQP4 in synaptic plasticity and neurocognition.
The association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and general anaesthesia – a narrative review
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder, manifesting primarily as attention deficit, hyperactivity and impulsive behaviour. General anaesthetics can be neurotoxic, affecting neuronal differentiation and synaptogenesis, which can lead to abnormalities of cognition, learning and behaviour.
Apoptosis is triggered in the developing mammalian brain by sedative, anesthetic or antiepileptic drugs during late gestation and early life. Whether human children are vulnerable to this toxicity mechanism remains unknown, as there are no imaging techniques to capture it. Apoptosis is characterized by distinct structural features, which affect the way damaged tissue scatters ultrasound compared to healthy tissue.
Dexmedetomidine reduced sevoflurane-induced neurodegeneration and long-term memory deficits in neonatal rats.
Exposure to sevoflurane and other inhalational anesthetics can induce neurodegeneration in the developing brain. Although dexmedetomidine (DEX) has provided neuroprotection against hypoxic ischemic injury, relatively little is known about whether it has the neuroprotective effects against anesthetic-induced neurodegeneration.
Erythropoietin Reduces Neurodegeneration and Long-Term Memory Deficits Following Sevoflurane Exposure in Neonatal Rats
Exposure to general anesthetics induces neural apoptosis and degeneration in the immature neonatal brain. Erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to protect neonatal animals against hypoxic-ischemic injury and general anesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity. However, preventive strategy caused by EPO against neurotoxicity due to general anesthesia is still uncertain.