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SmartTots and IARS News, Press Releases and Events

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SmartTots – Perspectives from the Front Lines

Millions of children undergo surgery annually. Recent studies suggest there may be reason for concern. This video, featuring Dr. Dean Andropoulos, Dr. Peter Davis, and Dr. Caleb Ing, provides a summary as to why research is needed and the type that is needed.

SmartTots to Help Make Anesthetics and Sedatives Safer for Children

Dr. Janet Woodcock, director of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research at the Food and Drug Administration, and Dr. Michael Roizen, of the International Anesthesia Research Society, unveil a new partnership that aims to make anesthesia safer for children.

Pediatric Anesthesia Questions and Myths-Mayo Clinic

Dr. Randall Flick at Mayo Clinic “debunks myths” and answers common questions raised by parents in regard to anesthesia.

Both GSK-3β/CRMP2 and CDK5/CRMP2 pathways participate in the protection of dexmedetomidine against propofol-induced learning and memory impairment in neonatal rats.

Dexmedetomidine has been reported to ameliorate propofol-induced neurotoxicity in neonatal animals. However, the underlying mechanism is still undetermined. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), cycline dependent kinase-5 (CDK5) and Rho-kinase (RhoA) pathways play critical roles in neuronal development. The present study is to investigate whether GSK-3β, CDK5 and RhoA pathways are involved in the neuroprotection of dexmedetomidine. Seven-day-old (P7) Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with propofol for 6 h.

Potential role of the cAMP/PKA/CREB signalling pathway in hypoxic preconditioning and effect on propofol‑induced neurotoxicity in the hippocampus of neonatal rats.

Hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) is neuroprotective against ischaemic brain injury; however, the roles of potential anti‑apoptotic signals in this process have not been assessed. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in HPC‑induced neuroprotection, the effects of HPC on the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP response element‑binding protein (CREB) signalling pathway and apoptosis in Sprague‑Dawley pups (postnatal day 7) treated with propofol were investigated.

Relevance of experimental paradigms of anesthesia induced neurotoxicity in the mouse.

Routine general anesthesia is considered to be safe in healthy individuals. However, pre-clinical studies in mice, rats, and monkeys have repeatedly demonstrated that exposure to anesthetic agents during early post-natal periods can lead to acute neurotoxicity. More concerning, later-life defects in cognition, assessed by behavioral assays for learning and memory, have been reported.

Neonatal exposure to the experimental environment or ketamine can induce long-term learning dysfunction or overmyelination in female but not male rats.

Ketamine can induce neurotoxicity after exposures to the developing brain. To investigate whether ketamine at subanesthetic dosage or its environmental condition can cause long-term cognitive dysfunction after multiple exposures in male or female neonatal rats, postnatal day 5 (P5)-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups: ketamine group, vehicle group, and control group (no disturbance). Learning and memory abilities from P60 to P65 and immunofluorescence tests for myelin basic protein (MBP) in gray matter on P65 were conducted.

Pre-administration of luteoline attenuates neonatal sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in mice.

Sevoflurane is a widely used inhaled anesthetic, which triggers neuroapoptosis and oxidative damage in the developing central nervous system and cognitive dysfunction later in life. However, no effective therapeutic strategy for sevoflurane-induced deleterious effects is well developed. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether luteoline could attenuate neonatal sevoflurane exposure-triggered neurotoxicity. In this study, six-day-old C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with luteoline (30, 60 mg/kg) intraperitoneally for 30 min before exposed to 3% sevoflurane 6 h consecutively.