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Research Articles

March 2023

Age-Stratified Propofol Dosage for Pediatric Procedural Sedation and Analgesia.
Anesthesia & Analgesia March 2023

Alfaxalone Alleviates Neurotoxicity and Cognitive Impairment Induced by Isoflurane Anesthesia in Offspring Rats.
Anesthesia & Analgesia March 2023

Angelicin Alleviates Maternal Isoflurane Exposure-Induced Offspring Cognitive Defects Through the Carbonic Anhydrase 4/Aquaporin-4 Pathway.
Molecular Biotechnology March 2023

Bicuculline and Bumetanide Attenuate Sevoflurane-Induced Impairment of Myelination and Cognition in Young Mice.
ACS Chemical Neuroscience March 2023

Clinical investigations on anesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity: The knowns, the unknowns and future prospects.
Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology. March 2023

Early surgery in very preterm infants is associated with brain abnormalities on term MRI: a propensity score analysis.
Journal of perinatology: official journal of the California Perinatal Association March 2023

Effect of sevoflurane anesthesia to neonatal rat hippocampus by RNA-seq.
Neuroscience Letters March 2023

Neuroprotective strategies in anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity.
Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology March 2023

Prenatal anesthetic exposure and offspring neurodevelopmental outcomes-A narrative review.
Frontiers in Neurology March 2023

Prolonged exposure of neonatal mice to sevoflurane leads to hyper-ramification in microglia, reduced contacts between microglia and synapses, and defects in adult behavior.
Frontiers in Neurology March 2023

Propofol-Induced Developmental Neurotoxicity: From Mechanisms to Therapeutic Strategies.
ACS Chemical Neuroscience March 2023

Role of posttranslational modifications in memory and cognitive impairments caused by neonatal sevoflurane exposure.
Frontiers in Pharmacology March 2023

December 2022

Anesthesia and neurodevelopment after 20 years: where are we now and where to next?
Canadian Journal of Anesthesia December 2022

Association of sedation and anesthesia on cognitive outcomes in very premature infants: a retrospective observational study.
Canadian journal of anaesthesia December 2022

Embryonic exposure to fentanyl induces behavioral changes and neurotoxicity in zebrafish larvae.
PeerJ December 2022

Mechanistic insight into sevoflurane-associated developmental neurotoxicity.
Cell biology and toxicology December 2022

Neonatal ketamine exposure impairs infrapyramidal bundle pruning and causes lasting increase in excitatory synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA3 neurons.
Neurobiology of disease December 2022

Readability, Content, and Quality of Online Patient Education Materials on Anesthesia and Neurotoxicity in the Pediatric Population.
American journal of perinatology December 2022

Spatial and temporal alterations of developing oligodendrocytes induced by repeated sevoflurane exposure in neonatal mice.
Biochemical and biophysical research communications December 2022

Tandem mass tag-based quantitative proteomic analysis of effects of multiple sevoflurane exposures on the cerebral cortex of neonatal and adult mice.
Frontiers in neurology December 2022

Z-DNA/RNA Binding Protein 1 Senses Mitochondrial DNA to Induce Receptor-Interacting Protein Kinase-3/Mixed Lineage Kinase Domain-Like-Driven Necroptosis in Developmental Sevoflurane Neurotoxicity.
Neuroscience December 2022

November 2022

Analgesia, Sedation, and Anesthesia for Neonates With Cardiac Disease.
Pediatrics November 2022

Anesthesia and developing brain: What have we learned from recent studies.
Frontiers in molecular neuroscience November 2022

Comparative Sedation with Sevoflurane and Thiopental in Children Undergoing MR Imaging.
Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons — Pakistan : JCPSP November 2022

Egr2 contributes to age-dependent vulnerability to sevoflurane-induced cognitive deficits in mice.
Acta pharmacologica Sinica November 2022

Environmental enrichment holds promise as a novel treatment for anesthesia-induced neurocognitive disorders.
Neurotoxicology and teratology November 2022

Justification Of Empiric Methodology to Determine Dexmedetomidine Dose for the TREX Study.
Paediatric anaesthesia November 2022

Ketamine impairs growth cone and synaptogenesis in human GABAergic projection neurons via GSK-3β and HDAC6 signaling.
Molecular psychiatry November 2022

Ketamine modulates neural stem cell differentiation by regulating TRPC3 expression through the GSK3β/β-catenin pathway.
Neurotoxicology November 2022

Neonatal exposures to sevoflurane in rhesus monkeys alter synaptic ultrastructure in later life.
iScience November 2022

Neonatal Isoflurane Exposure in Rats Impairs Short-Term Memory, Cell Viability, and Glutamate Uptake in Slices of the Frontal Cerebral Cortex, But Not the Hippocampus, in Adulthood.
Neurotoxicity research November 2022

Neurotoxic Impact of Individual Anesthetic Agents on the Developing Brain.
Children (Basel, Switzerland) November 2022

Parvalbumin interneuron loss mediates repeated anesthesia-induced memory deficits in mice.
The Journal of clinical investigation November 2022

Repeated sevoflurane exposures inhibit neurogenesis by inducing the upregulation of glutamate transporter 1 in astrocytes.
The European journal of neuroscience November 2022

Research progress on molecular mechanisms of general anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment in the developing brain.
Frontiers in neurology November 2022

October 2022

Acutely increased aquaporin-4 exhibits more potent protective effects in the cortex against single and repeated isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in the developing rat brain.
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods October 2022

Dexmedetomidine Diminishes, but Does Not Prevent Developmental Effects of Sevoflurane in Neonatal Rats.
Anesthesia & Analgesia October 2022

Does a Single Exposure to General Anesthesia Have a Cumulative Effect on the Developing Brain after Mild Perinatal Asphyxia?
Life (Basel, Switzerland) October 2022

Effects of overexpression of Hsp70 in neural stem cells on neurotoxicity and cognitive dysfunction in neonatal mice under sevoflurane exposure.
Experimental Brain Research October 2022

General anesthesia in early childhood and possible association with autism: a population-based matched cohort study.
Minerva Anesthesiologica October 2022

Identification and Validation of Ferroptosis-Related Genes in Sevoflurane-Induced Hippocampal Neurotoxicity.
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity October 2022

Intraoperative Blood Pressure and Long-Term Neurodevelopmental Function in Children Undergoing Ambulatory Surgery.
Anesthesia & Analgesia October 2022

Neurodevelopmental outcomes after prenatal exposure to anaesthesia for maternal surgery: a propensity-score weighted bidirectional cohort study.
Anaesthesia October 2022

Repeated Sevoflurane Exposures in Neonatal Rats Increased the Brain Vulnerability to Future Stress Exposure and Resulted in Fear Extinction Deficit.
Neurotoxicity Research October 2022

Sevoflurane induces microRNA-18a to delay rat neurodevelopment via suppression of the RUNX1/Wnt/β-catenin axis.
Cell death discovery October 2022

The propofol-induced mitochondrial damage in fetal rat hippocampal neurons via the AMPK/P53 signaling pathway.
Annals of Translational Medicine October 2022

September 2022

Maternal use of acetaminophen during pregnancy and neurobehavioral problems in offspring at 3 years: A prospective cohort study
PLoS ONE September 28, 2022

General anesthesia in children and long-term neurodevelopmental deficits: A systematic review.
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience September 2022

Implication of microglia in ketamine-induced long-term cognitive impairment in murine pups.
Human & Experimental Toxicology September 2022

Isoflurane stress induces region-specific glucocorticoid levels in neonatal mouse brain.
The Journal of Endocrinology September 2022

Mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate improves long-term cognitive impairment after general anesthesia exposure in neonatal mice.
Frontiers in Neuroscience September 2022

Melatonin attenuates spatial learning and memory dysfunction in developing rats by suppressing isoflurane-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress via the SIRT1/Mfn2/PERK signaling pathway.
Heliyon September 2022

Mild hypothermia fails to protect infant macaques from brain injury caused by prolonged exposure to Antiseizure drugs.
Neurobiology of Disease September 2022

PHLDA1 promotes sevoflurane-induced pyroptosis of neuronal cells in developing rats through TRAF6-mediated activation of Rac1.
Neurotoxicology September 2022

Role of GABAA receptor depolarization-mediated VGCC activation in sevoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in neonatal mice.
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience September 2022

S-ketamine administration in pregnant mice induces ADHD- and depression-like behaviors in offspring mice.
Behavioural Brain Research September 2022

Sevoflurane exposure during the second trimester induces neurotoxicity in offspring rats by hyperactivation of PARP-1.
Psychopharmacology September 2022

The impact of early exposure to general anesthesia on visual and neurocognitive development.
Survey of Ophthalmology September 2022

June 2022

Anesthetic Exposure During Childhood and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes – A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
JAMA Network Open June 2022

Fentanyl induces autism-like behaviours in mice by hypermethylation of the glutamate receptor gene Grin2b.
British Journal of Anaesthesia June 2022

Is There an Association between the Use of Epidural Analgesia during Labor and the Development of Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Offspring? A Review of the Literature.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health June 2022

Isoflurane and Sevoflurane Induce Cognitive Impairment in Neonatal Rats by Inhibiting Neural Stem Cell Development Through Microglial Activation, Neuroinflammation, and Suppression of VEGFR2 Signaling Pathway.
Neurotoxicity Research June 2022

miRNA-384-3p alleviates sevoflurane-induced nerve injury by inhibiting Aak1 kinase in neonatal rats.
Brain and Behavior June 2022

Nonhuman Primates and Developmental Anesthesia Neurotoxicity Research: Pitfalls of Surrogate Models and Déformation Professionnelle.
Anesthesia & Analgesia June 2022

Notoginsenoside R1 attenuates sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity
Translational Neuroscience June 2022

PP2A-associated tau hyperphosphorylation was involved in sevoflurane induced neonatal neurotoxicity.
Psychopharmacology June 2022

Prolonged sevoflurane exposure causes abnormal synapse development and dysregulates beta-neurexin and neuroligins in the hippocampus in neonatal rats
Journal of Affective Disorders June 2022

Sevoflurane Exposure in the Developing Brain Induces Hyperactivity, Anxiety-Free, and Enhancement of Memory Consolidation in Mice.
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience June 2022

Systemic inflammation exacerbates developmental neurotoxicity induced by sevoflurane in neonatal rats.
Useinovic et al.
British Journal of Anaesthesia June 2022

Utilization of neonatal sedation and anesthesia: an SPR survey.
Pediatric Radiology June 2022

April 2022

Disruption of hippocampal P2RX2/CaMKII/NF-κB signaling contributes to learning and memory impairment in C57BL/6 mice induced by surgery plus anesthesia in neonatal period.
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy April 2022

Does Resveratrol Prevent Sevoflurane Toxicity in Newborn Rats?
Journal of Medicinal Food April 2022

Echinacoside alleviates sevoflurane-induced cognitive dysfunction by activating FOXO1-mediated autophagy.
International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience April 2022

LncRNA SNHG12 ameliorates bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity by sponging miR-497-5p to upregulate NLRX1.
Human & Experimental Toxicology April 2022

Neonatal Anesthesia and Oxidative Stress.
Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland) April 2022

Neonatal Exposure to Propofol Interferes with the Proliferation and Differentiation of Hippocampal Neural Stem Cells and the Neurocognitive Function of Rats in Adulthood via the Akt/p27 Signaling Pathway.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences April 2022

Nonapoptotic caspases in neural development and in anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity.
Trends in Neurosciences April 2022

Post-operative behavioural disorders in paediatric anaesthesia caused by anaesthetics and sedatives.
Bratislava Medical Journal April 2022

Sevoflurane diminishes neurogenesis and promotes ferroptosis in embryonic prefrontal cortex via inhibiting nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 expression.
NeuroReport April 2022

Sevoflurane-Induced Apoptosis in the Mouse Cerebral Cortex Follows Similar Characteristics of Physiological Apoptosis.
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience April 2022

Sevoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity in the Developing Hippocampus via HIPK2/AKT/mTOR Signaling.
Neurotoxicity Research April 2022

The role and mechanism of TLR4-siRNA in the impairment of learning and memory in young mice induced by isoflurane.
Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University April 2022

The Role of Epigenetic Modifications in Neurotoxicity Induced by Neonatal General Anesthesia.
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience April 2022

January 2022

Anesthesia and Developing Brains: Unanswered Questions and Proposed Paths Forward.
Anesthesiology January 11, 2022

Anesthesia and neurotoxicity study design, execution, and reporting in the nonhuman primate: A systematic review.
Paediatric Anaesthesia January 2022

Decreased Electroencephalographic Alpha Power During Anesthesia Induction Is Associated With EEG Discontinuity in Human Infant.
Anesthesia & Analgesia January 2022

Do We Have Viable Protective Strategies against Anesthesia-Induced Developmental Neurotoxicity?
International Journal of Molecular Sciences January 2022

Does inflammation mediate behavioural alterations in anaesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity?
British Journal of Anaesthesia January 2022

Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor decrease may mediate learning, memory and behavior impairments in rats after neonatal surgery
Brain research bulletin January 2022

Hippocampal SIRT1-Mediated Synaptic Plasticity and Glutamatergic Neuronal Excitability Are Involved in Prolonged Cognitive Dysfunction of Neonatal Rats Exposed to Propofol.
Molecular Neurobiology January 2022

MiRNA-384-5p targets GABRB1 to regulate ketamine-Induced Neurotoxicity in Neurons.
Turkish Neurosurgery January 2022

Neonatal exposure to sevoflurane impairs preference for social novelty in C57BL/6 female mice at early-adulthood.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications January 2022

Propofol induces the apoptosis of neural stem cells via microRNA-9-5p / chemokine CXC receptor 4 signaling pathway.
Bioengineered January 2022

Testosterone: much more for the brain than a sex hormone.
British Journal of Anaesthesia January 2022

Tetraethylammonium chloride reduces anaesthetic-induced neurotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans and mice.
British Journal of Anaesthesia January 2022

Identification of microRNA/target gene in the dentate gyrus of 7 day old mice following isoflurane exposure.
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis 2022

Neonatal isoflurane exposure disturbs granule cell migration in the rat dentate gyrus.
Biomedical Research 2022

November 2021

LncRNA Riken Attenuated Sevoflurane-Induced Neuroinflammation by Regulating the MicroRNA-101a/MKP-1/JNK Pathway.
Neurotoxicity Research November 26, 2021

Evaluation of neurotoxicity and long-term function and behavior following intrathecal 1 % 2-chloroprocaine in juvenile rats.
Neurotoxicology November 18, 2021

Early Development of the GABAergic System and the Associated Risks of Neonatal Anesthesia.
International journal of molecular sciences November 2021

Epitranscriptomic Analysis of N6-methyladenosine in Infant Rhesus Macaques after Multiple Sevoflurane Anesthesia
Neuroscience November 2021

Moderators of the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and exposure to anaesthesia and surgery in children.
British Journal of Anaesthesia November 2021

Neonatal Isoflurane Does Not Affect Sleep Architecture and Minimally Alters Neuronal Beta Oscillations in Adolescent Rats.
Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience November 2021

Overexpression of miR-133b protects against isoflurane-induced learning and memory impairment.
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine November 2021

Pachypodol protects newborn rats from anaesthesia-induced apoptosis in the developing brain by regulating the JNK/ERK pathway.
International journal of developmental neuroscience: The official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience November 2021

Propofol and Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Early Childhood Do Not Influence Seizure Threshold in Adult Rats.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health November 2021

September 2021

Melatonin pretreatment alleviates the long-term synaptic toxicity and dysmyelination induced by neonatal Sevoflurane exposure via MT1 receptor-mediated Wnt signaling modulation.
Journal of Pineal Research September 29, 2021

Quantitative behavioural phenotyping to investigate anaesthesia induced neurobehavioural impairment.
Scientific Reports September 29, 2021

Early-life midazolam exposure persistently changes chromatin accessibility to impair adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America September 21, 2021

The Role of Klotho Protein Against Sevoflurane-Induced Neuronal Injury.
Neurochemical Research September 8, 2021

Neonatal Anesthesia by Ketamine in Neonatal Rats Inhibits the Proliferation and Differentiation of Hippocampal Neural Stem Cells and Decreases Neurocognitive Function in Adulthood via Inhibition of the Notch1 Signaling Pathway.
Molecular Neurobiology September 3, 2021

Astrogliosis in juvenile non-human primates 2 years after infant anaesthesia exposure.
British Journal of Anaesthesia September 2021

Does Anesthesia and Surgery During Pregnancy Really Affect Learning and Behavior in the Offspring: The Holy Grail in Anesthesiology Research.
Anesthesia & Analgesia September 2021

Exposure to Sevoflurane, But Not Ketamine, During Early-life Brain Development has Long-Lasting Effects on GABAA Receptor Mediated Inhibitory Neurotransmission.
Neuroscience September 2021

The Role of Pink1-Mediated Mitochondrial Pathway in Propofol-Induced Developmental Neurotoxicity.
Neurochemical Research September 2021

June 2021

Research Progress of Pharmacological Intervention of Sevoflurane-induced Nerve Injury in the Developing Brain.

Gut microbiota mediates cognitive impairment in young mice after multiple neonatal exposures to sevoflurane.
Aging June 28, 2021

Neonatal administration of a subanaesthetic dose of JM-1232(-) in mice results in no behavioural deficits in adulthood.
Scientific Reports June 18, 2021

Genistein Attenuates Isoflurane-Induced Neuroinflammation by Inhibiting TLR4-Mediated Microglial-Polarization in vivo and in vitro.
Journal of Inflammation Research June 17, 2021

Repeated Neonatal Isoflurane Exposure is Associated with Higher Susceptibility to Chronic Variable Stress-induced Behavioural and Neuro-inflammatory Alterations.
Neuroscience June 15, 2021

Testosterone is Sufficient to Impart Susceptibility to Isoflurane Neurotoxicity in Female Neonatal Rats.
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology June 15, 2021

Histone Deacetylase 2-Mediated Epigenetic Regulation is Involved in the Early Isoflurane Exposure-Related Increase in Susceptibility to Anxiety-Like Behaviour Evoked by Chronic Variable Stress in Mice.
Neurochemical Research June 8, 2021

lncRNA Xist regulates sevoflurane-induced social and emotional impairment by modulating miR-98-5p/EDEM1 signaling axis in neonatal mice.
Molecular Therapy – Nucleic Acids June 4, 2021

Parental Decision-Making for Surgery and Anesthesia in Young Children.
Western Journal of Nursing Research June 4, 2021

A decade later, there are still major issues to be addressed in paediatric anaesthesia.
Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology June 2021

Effect of operative trauma and multiple propofol anesthesia on neurodevelopment and cognitive function in developmental rats.
Journal of Zhejiang University (Medical Sciences) June 2021

Maternal sevoflurane exposure induces temporary defects in interkinetic nuclear migration of radial glial progenitors in the fetal cerebral cortex through the Notch signalling pathway.
Cell Proliferation June 2021

May 2021

Evaluation of the Neuroprotective Effect of Pycnogenol in a Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury Model in Newborn Rats.
American Journal of Perinatology May 27, 2021

Recent advances in understanding cognitive and behavioural alterations after early-in-life anaesthesia exposure and new mitigation/alternative strategies in preclinical studies.
Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology May 18, 2021

Why do We Use the Concepts of Adult Anesthesia Pharmacology in Developing Brains? Will It Have an Impact on Outcomes? Challenges in Neuromonitoring and Pharmacology in Pediatric Anesthesia.
J Clin Med May 18, 2021

RIPK1/RIPK3-Mediated Necroptosis is Involved in Sevoflurane-Induced Neonatal Neurotoxicity in the Rat Hippocampus.
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology May 15, 2021

Maternal anesthesia with sevoflurane during the mid-gestation induces social interaction deficits in offspring C57BL/6 mice.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications May 14, 2021

The effect of xenon on fetal neurodevelopment following maternal sevoflurane anesthesia and laparotomy in rabbits.
Neurotoxicology and Teratology May 5, 2021

Accounting for General Anesthesia: A Pre-Op Primer and Post-Op Factor.
Pediatric Annals May 1, 2021

Downregulation of HOTAIR reduces neuronal pyroptosis by targeting miR-455-3p/NLRP1 axis in propofol-treated neurons in vitro.
Neurochemical Research May 2021

Effect of dexmedetomidine on sevoflurane-induced neurodegeneration in neonatal rats.
British Journal of Anaesthesia May 2021

Effects of sevoflurane general anesthesia during early pregnancy on AIM2 expression in the hippocampus and parietal cortex of Sprague-Dawley offspring rats.
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine May 2021

Identifying Clinical Clues in Children With Global Developmental Delay / Intellectual Disability With Abnormal Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
Journal of Child Neurology May 2021

Longitudinal associations between exposure to anesthesia and neurocognitive functioning in pediatric medulloblastoma.
European Journal of Cancer May 2021

Preventing the Long-term Effects of General Anesthesia on the Developing Brain: How Translational Research can Contribute.
Neuroscience May 2021

April 2021

Sevoflurane impairs m6A-mediated mRNA translation and leads to fine motor and cognitive deficits.
Cell Biology and Toxicology April 29, 2021

The effect of sevoflurane anesthesia for dental procedure on neurocognition in children: a prospective, equivalence, controlled trial.
BMC Pediatrics April 16, 2021

Ferroptosis contributes to isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity and learning and memory impairment.
Cell Death Discovery April 7, 2021

Long Noncoding RNA SPRY4-IT1 Modulates Ketamine-Induced Neurotoxicity in Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons through EZH2.
Developmental Neuroscience April 7, 2021

Effects of general anaesthesia during pregnancy on neurocognitive development of the fetus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
British Journal of Anaesthesia April 6, 2021

Intrapartum opioid analgesia and childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes among infants born preterm.
American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM April 5, 2021

Anaesthesia, neural activity, and brain development: interneurones in the spotlight.
British Journal of Anaesthesia April 1, 2021

Ketamine inhibits neuronal differentiation by regulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling
Toxicology in Vitro April 2021

MicroRNA-1297 suppressed the Akt/GSK3 β signaling pathway and stimulated neural apoptosis in an in vivo sevoflurane exposure model
Journal of International Medical Research April 2021

Repeated exposure to propofol in the neonatal period impairs hippocampal synaptic plasticity and the recognition function of rats in adulthood
Brain Research Bulletin April 2021

Surgery requiring general anesthesia in preterm infants is associated with altered brain volumes at term equivalent age and neurodevelopmental impairment.
Pediatric Research April 2021

Anesthetic Exposure in Staged Versus Single-Stage Cleft Lip and Palate Repair: Can We Reduce Risk of Anesthesia-Induced Developmental Neurotoxicity?
Journal of Craniofacial Surgery March-April 2021

March 2021

Edaravone Alleviated Propofol-Induced Neurotoxicity in Developing Hippocampus by mBDNF/TrkB/PI3K Pathway.
Drug Design, Development and Therapy March 30, 2021

Role of sedative-hypnotic agents in neurodegeneration: Effects of midazolam and thiopental on apoptosis and oxidative stress expression in neonatal and adult rat brains.
Turkish Neurosurgery March 29, 2021

Intranasal levosimendan prevents cognitive dysfunction and apoptotic response induced by repeated isoflurane exposure in newborn rats.
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology March 27, 2021

Protective Effect of GM1 Attenuates Hippocampus and Cortex Apoptosis After Ketamine Exposure in Neonatal Rat via PI3K/AKT/GSK3β Pathway.
Molecular Neurobiology March 17, 2021

Singular and short-term anesthesia exposure in the developing brain induces persistent neuronal changes consistent with chronic neurodegenerative disease.
Scientific Reports March 11, 2021

Prediction of levobupivacaine concentrations in neonates and infants following neuraxial rescue blocks.
Pediatric Anesthesia March 8, 2021

Anesthesia and the Developing Brain: A Review of Sevoflurane-induced Neurotoxicity in Pediatric Populations.
Clinical Therapeutics March 2, 2021

Dexmedetomidine and Clonidine Attenuate Sevoflurane-Induced Tau Phosphorylation and Cognitive Impairment in Young Mice via α-2 Adrenergic Receptor
Anesthesia & Analgesia March 1, 2021

Further Study Needed of the Impact of Early-Life Surgery With Associated General Anesthesia on the Risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Anesthesia & Analgesia March 2021

Predictors of Anesthetic Exposure in Pediatric MRI.
American Journal of Roentgenology March 2021

Ketamine-induced neurotoxicity in neurodevelopment: A synopsis of main pathways based on recent in vivo experimental findings.
Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology January-March 2021

December 2020

Resveratrol ameliorates sevoflurane-induced cognitive impairment by activating the SIRT1/NF-κB pathway in neonatal mice
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry December 31, 2020

Hypermethylation of EFEMP1 in the Hippocampus May Be Related to the Deficit in Spatial Memory of Rat Neonates Triggered by Repeated Administration of Propofol.
BioMed Research International December 19, 2020

Emerging Role of Long Noncoding RNAs in Perioperative Neurocognitive Disorders and Anesthetic-Induced Developmental Neurotoxicity
Anesthesia & Analgesia December 16, 2020

Hypotension and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes among children with multiple exposures to general anesthesia: Subanalysis of the Mayo Anesthesia Safety in Kids (MASK) Study
Paediatric Anaesthesia December 15, 2020

Sevoflurane-induced neuronal apoptosis in neonatal mice is prevented with intranasal administration of insulin
American Journal of Translational Research December 15, 2020

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes after Premedication with Atropine/Propofol vs Atropine/Atracurium/Sufentanil for Neonatal Intubation: 2-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Clinical Trial
The Journal of Pediatrics December 8, 2020

Sevoflurane Exposure Induces Neuronal Cell Parthanatos Initiated by DNA Damage in the Developing Brain via an Increase of Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience December 3, 2020

Neonatal exposure to ketamine disrupts developmental synapse unsilencing and predisposes adult mice for stressor-evoked anxiety
Neuropharmacology December 1, 2020

Prenatal sevoflurane exposure: Effects of iron metabolic dysfunction on offspring cognition and potential mechanism
International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience December 1, 2020

October 2020

Neuroprotection of the Developing Brain by Dexmedetomidine Is Mediated by Attenuating Single Propofol-induced Hippocampal Apoptosis and Synaptic Plasticity Deficits
Experimental Neurobiology October 31, 2020

Behavior and Regional Cortical BOLD Signal Fluctuations Are Altered in Adult Rabbits After Neonatal Volatile Anesthetic Exposure
Frontiers in Neuroscience October 23, 2020

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and educational level in adolescent and adult individuals after anesthesia and abdominal surgery during infancy
PLOS One October 21, 2020

miR-455-3p alleviates propofol-induced neurotoxicity by reducing EphA4 expression in developing neurons
Biomarkers October 18, 2020

An Overview on the Mechanisms of Neuroprotection and Neurotoxicity of Isoflurane and Sevoflurane in Experimental Studies
Brain Research Bulletin October 17, 2020

MicroRNA-204-5p mediates sevoflurane-induced cytotoxicity in HT22 cells by targeting brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Histology & Histopathology October 2, 2020

Androgenic Modulation of the Chloride Transporter NKCC1 Contributes to Age-dependent Isoflurane Neurotoxicity in Male Rats
Anesthesiology October 1, 2020

A Methyltransferase Inhibitor (Decitabine) Alleviates Intergenerational Effects of Paternal Neonatal Exposure to Anesthesia With Sevoflurane
Anesthesia & Analgesia October 2020

Effects of ketamine on neurogenesis, extracellular matrix homeostasis and proliferation in hypoxia-exposed HT22 murine hippocampal neurons.
Biomedical Reports October 2020

Sevoflurane leads to learning and memory dysfunction via breaking the balance of tPA/PAI-1.
Neurochemistry International October 2020

September 2020

Maternal sevoflurane exposure affects differentiation of hippocampal neural stem cells by regulating miR-410-3p and ATN1
Stem Cell Research & Therapy September 29, 2020

Anesthesia plus surgery in neonatal period impairs preference for social novelty in mice at the juvenile age.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications September 24, 2020

Early childhood general anesthesia exposure associated with later developmental delay: A national population-based cohort study
PLOS One September 24, 2020

Protective role of protocatechuic acid in sevoflurane-induced neuron apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress in mice
Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience September 24, 2020

Conditions requiring hospitalisations, more than general anaesthesia itself, are associated with diagnosis of learning disorders in children
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine September 23, 2020

Effects of early postnatal sevoflurane exposure on oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination in cerebral white matter of the rat
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy September 18, 2020

Neonatal exposure to sevoflurane expands the window of vulnerability to adverse effects of subsequent exposure to sevoflurane and alters hippocampal morphology via decitabine-sensitive mechanisms
Neuroscience Letters September 14, 2020

Sevoflurane Post-Conditioning Ameliorates Neuronal Deficits and Axon Demyelination After Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Brain Injury: Role of Microglia/Macrophage
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology September 2, 2020

Propofol inhibits the expression of Abelson nonreceptor tyrosine kinase without affecting learning or memory function in neonatal rats
Brain and Behavior September 1, 2020

Is Anesthesia Bad for the Brain? Current Knowledge on the Impact of Anesthetics on the Developing Brain.
Anesthesiology Clinics September 2020

Sevoflurane Induces Hippocampal Neuronal Apoptosis by Altering the Level of Neuropeptide Y in Neonatal Rats.
Neurochemical Research September 2020

Tau Contributes to Sevoflurane-induced Neurocognitive Impairment in Neonatal Mice
Anesthesiology September 2020

The protective effect of trilobatin against isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in mouse hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells involves the Nrf2/ARE pathway
Toxicology September 2020

The Unspoken Question!
Anesthesia & Analgesia September 2020

Yes‑associated protein protects and rescues SH‑SY5Y cells from ketamine‑induced apoptosis
Molecular Medicine Reports September 2020

June 2020

LncRNA LINC00641 Sponges miR-497-5p to Ameliorate Neural Injury Induced by Anesthesia via Up-Regulating BDNF.
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience June 30, 2020

General anesthesia affecting on developing brain: evidence from animal to clinical research.
Journal of Anesthesia June 29, 2020

Autophagic Network Analysis of the Dual Effect of Sevoflurane on Neurons Associated with GABARAPL1 and 2.
BioMed Research International June 26, 2020

Dexmedetomidine in children – when should we be using it?
Anaesthesia June 24, 2020

Neonatal sevoflurane exposure induces impulsive behavioral deficit through disrupting excitatory neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex in mice.
Translational Psychiatry June 20, 2020

An appropriate level of autophagy reduces emulsified isoflurane-induced apoptosis in fetal neural stem cells.
Neural Regeneration Research June 19, 2020

Safety of anesthetic exposure on the developing brain – Do we have the answer yet?
Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology June 15, 2020

Propofol Attenuates Isoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity and Cognitive Impairment in Fetal and Offspring Mice
Anesthesia & Analgesia June 10, 2020

Use of Dexmedetomidine and Opioids as the Primary Anesthetic in Infants and Young Children: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Pediatric Anesthesia June 8, 2020

Anesthetic Drugs in Children and Pregnant Women – Implications of the Recent FDA Warning.
Harefuah June 2020

Risk of Attention Deficit Hyper Activity Disorder After Early Exposure to General Anesthesia; A Case Control Study.
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics June 2020

May 2020

Optimization of Ultrasound Backscatter Spectroscopy to Assess Neurotoxic Effects of Anesthesia in the Newborn Non-human Primate Brain
Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology May 29, 2020

Neonatal Exposure to Anesthesia Leads to Cognitive Deficits in Old Age: Prevention With Intranasal Administration of Insulin in Mice
Neurotoxicity Research May 26, 2020

Neonatal Ketamine Alters High-Frequency Oscillations and Synaptic Plasticity in the Subiculum But Does not Affect Sleep Macrostructure in Adolescent Rats
Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience May 26, 2020

Neuroendocrine, epigenetic, and intergenerational effects of general anesthetics
World Journal of Psychiatry May 19, 2020

Upregulation of miR-215 attenuates propofol-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in developing neurons by targeting LATS2.
Molecular Medicine May 6, 2020

Neurotoxicity of Sub-Anesthetic Doses of Sevoflurane and Dexmedetomidine Co-Administration in Neonatal Rats
NeuroToxicology May 5, 2020

Upregulation of miR-496 Rescues Propofol-Induced Neurotoxicity by Targeting Rho Associated Coiled-Coil Containing Protein Kinase 2 (ROCK2) in Prefrontal Cortical Neurons
Current Neurovascular Research May 5, 2020

Acetyl-l-carnitine Does Not Prevent Neurodegeneration in a Rodent Model of Prolonged Neonatal Anesthesia
Neurotoxicology and Teratology May 3, 2020

Standards for Preclinical Research and Publications in Developmental Anaesthetic Neurotoxicity: Expert Opinion Statement From the SmartTots Preclinical Working Group
British Journal of Anaesthesia May 2020


What is SmartTots?

SmartTots is the IARS initiative to coordinate and fund research with the goal of increasing the safety of anesthetic and sedative drugs for the millions of children who undergo medical procedures each year. IARS works collaboratively with multiple stakeholders to leverage their collective resources in an effort to address this important issue.

How did the concerns about the safety of anesthetic drugs for infants and young children arise?

The FDA’s National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR), as well as investigators at several universities, conducted research to study the effects of anesthetics on the nervous systems of developing animals. This research demonstrated that exposure to some anesthetics and sedatives caused memory and learning difficulties and other harmful changes in the central nervous systems of some laboratory animals. Currently, inadequate data exist to prove or disprove whether similar effects occur in children.

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“SmartTots: Building Community and Advocating for Important Research”
SmartTots pediatric anesthetic neurotoxicity thought leaders discuss the current status of the field and provide insights into the future of the research.