News and Events

SmartTots and IARS News, Press Releases and Events

Panda Symposium

SmartTots – Perspectives from the Front Lines

Millions of children undergo surgery annually. Recent studies suggest there may be reason for concern. This video, featuring Dr. Dean Andropoulos, Dr. Peter Davis, and Dr. Caleb Ing, provides a summary as to why research is needed and the type that is needed.

SmartTots to Help Make Anesthetics and Sedatives Safer for Children

Dr. Janet Woodcock, director of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research at the Food and Drug Administration, and Dr. Michael Roizen, of the International Anesthesia Research Society, unveil a new partnership that aims to make anesthesia safer for children.

Pediatric Anesthesia Questions and Myths-Mayo Clinic

Dr. Randall Flick at Mayo Clinic “debunks myths” and answers common questions raised by parents in regard to anesthesia.

Early life exposure to extended general anesthesia with isoflurane and nitrous oxide reduces responsivity on a cognitive test battery in the nonhuman primate

Despite the widespread use of general anesthesia, a growing body of research suggests that anesthesia exposure early in life may be associated with acute neurotoxicity and lasting behavioral changes. To better evaluate the risk posed by early life anesthesia on cognitive development, infant rhesus monkeys were exposed to an anesthesia regimen previously shown to be neurotoxic and their cognitive development was subsequently measured using a translational operant test battery.

Anesthesia affects excitatory/inhibitory synapses during the critical synaptogenic period in the hippocampus of young mice: Importance of sex as a biological variable

Sex plays an important yet often underexplored role in neurodevelopment and neurotoxicity. While several studies report the importance of sex regarding anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity in neonatal mice, only few have focused on the late postnatal period. Here, to further understand the importance of sex regarding the neurobiological changes after early anesthesia during the critical synaptogenic period, we exposed postnatal day 16, 17 (PND 16, 17) mice to sevoflurane in pediatric patients and performed detailed evaluations in the hippocampus.

Electron microscopy techniques employed to explore mitochondrial defects in the developing rat brain following ketamine treatment

Ketamine, an FDA-approved N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, is commonly used for general pediatric anesthesia. Accumulating evidence has indicated that prolonged exposure to ketamine induces widespread apoptotic cell death in the developing brains of experimental animals. Although mitochondria are known to play a pivotal role in cell death, little is known about the alterations in mitochondrial ultrastructure that occur during ketamine-induced neurotoxicity.

Lipidomics reveals a systemic energy deficient state that precedes neurotoxicity in neonatal monkeys after sevoflurane exposure

Although numerous studies have raised public concerns regarding the safety of anesthetics including sevoflurane in children, the biochemical mechanisms leading to anesthetics-induced neurotoxicity remain elusive. Moreover, potential biomarker(s) for early detection of general anesthetics-induced brain injury are urgent for public health.

The Effect Of General Anesthesia On The Developing Brain: Appreciating Parent Concerns While Allaying Their Fears

More than one million children under the age of five undergo surgery annually in the United States. The most common procedures are myringotomy tubes, tonsillectomy/adenoidectomy, hernia repairs, and circumcisions. Recently, the issue of anesthesia-related neurotoxicity has been in the media limelight, and parents are appropriately fearful about the effects of general anesthesia on their child’s brain development.