News and Events

SmartTots and IARS News, Press Releases and Events
Panda Symposium

SmartTots – Perspectives from the Front Lines

Millions of children undergo surgery annually. Recent studies suggest there may be reason for concern. This video, featuring Dr. Dean Andropoulos, Dr. Peter Davis, and Dr. Caleb Ing, provides a summary as to why research is needed and the type that is needed.

SmartTots to Help Make Anesthetics and Sedatives Safer for Children

Dr. Janet Woodcock, director of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research at the Food and Drug Administration, and Dr. Michael Roizen, of the International Anesthesia Research Society, unveil a new partnership that aims to make anesthesia safer for children.

Pediatric Anesthesia Questions and Myths-Mayo Clinic

Dr. Randall Flick at Mayo Clinic “debunks myths” and answers common questions raised by parents in regard to anesthesia.

Ketamine-induced neurotoxicity in neurodevelopment: A synopsis of main pathways based on recent in vivo experimental findings.

Ketamine, a phencyclidine derivative and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, is widely used as an anesthetic, analgesic, and sedative agent in daily pediatric practice. Experimental studies have suggested that early prenatal or postnatal exposure to ketamine can induce neuroapoptosis, and establish neurobehavioral deficits that are evident in adulthood. However, most of the currently available clinical evidence is derived from retrospective and observational clinical studies. We, herein, attempt a brief review of the cellular and molecular mechanisms suggested to mediate ketamine-induced developmental neurotoxicity, utilizing a selected number of recent in vivo experimental evidence.

Ferroptosis contributes to isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity and learning and memory impairment.

Ferroptosis is a novel type of programmed cell death, which is different from apoptosis and autophagic cell death. Recently, ferroptosis has been indicated to contribute to the in vitro neurotoxicity induced by isoflurane, which is one of the most common anesthetics in clinic. However, the in vivo position of ferroptosis in isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity as well as learning and memory impairment remains unclear. In this study, we mainly explored the relationship between ferroptosis and isoflurane-induced learning and memory, as well as the therapeutic methods in mouse model.

RIPK1/RIPK3-Mediated Necroptosis is Involved in Sevoflurane-Induced Neonatal Neurotoxicity in the Rat Hippocampus.

Recent studies have shown that exposure to sevoflurane in developing brains causes neuronal apoptosis and cognitive dysfunction. “Necroptosis” is a novel pathway of necrosis. We introduced the caspase-specific inhibitor Z-VAD in addition to the receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) inhibitor Nec-1, to ascertain the existence and importance of necroptosis.

lncRNA Xist regulates sevoflurane-induced social and emotional impairment by modulating miR-98-5p/EDEM1 signaling axis in neonatal mice.

Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) X-inactive specific transcript (Xist) is involved in apoptosis and inflammatory injury. This study aimed to assess the role of lncRNA Xist in sevoflurane-induced social and emotional impairment and neuronal apoptosis in neonatal mice and hippocampal neuronal cells. The performance in social and emotional tests and the expression levels of lncRNA Xist and microRNA (miR)-98-5p after sevoflurane exposure were measured. Moreover, the effects of suppression of lncRNA Xist on neuronal apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were determined.

Hypermethylation of EFEMP1 in the Hippocampus May Be Related to the Deficit in Spatial Memory of Rat Neonates Triggered by Repeated Administration of Propofol.

It has been confirmed that repeated application of propofol, as an intravenous and short-fast-acting anesthetic, in neonatal animals or humans may produce long-term deficits in cognitive functions. With the aim of explaining the neurotoxic effects of repeated administration of propofol on neonatal rat pups from P7 to P9 especially from an epigenetic perspective, the present study used the Morris water maze to detect cognitive deficits in spatial learning and memory, Sequenom methylation on the CpG island located in the promoter region of epidermal growth factor-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1) to assess the methylation level of this region, and Western blot to measure the expression of EFEMP1, TIMP-3, and MMP-9.