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SmartTots and IARS News, Press Releases and Events
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SmartTots – Perspectives from the Front Lines

Millions of children undergo surgery annually. Recent studies suggest there may be reason for concern. This video, featuring Dr. Dean Andropoulos, Dr. Peter Davis, and Dr. Caleb Ing, provides a summary as to why research is needed and the type that is needed.

SmartTots to Help Make Anesthetics and Sedatives Safer for Children

Dr. Janet Woodcock, director of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research at the Food and Drug Administration, and Dr. Michael Roizen, of the International Anesthesia Research Society, unveil a new partnership that aims to make anesthesia safer for children.

Pediatric Anesthesia Questions and Myths-Mayo Clinic

Dr. Randall Flick at Mayo Clinic “debunks myths” and answers common questions raised by parents in regard to anesthesia.

Anesthetic Neurotoxicity

This book chapter, including a section on the pediatric population, explores the issues of concern and clinical significance of the neurotoxic side effects of general anesthesia. The authors 1) summarize research findings in young animals that demonstrate “deleterious” side effects; 2) describe preclinical findings on mechanisms of anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity; 3) identify anesthetic agents implicated in neuronal loss and brain cell death; 4) address challenges in translating findings in young animals to human children; and 5) highlight findings in select clinical retrospective studies and clinical trials, like the Mayo Anesthesia Safety in Kids, MASK, study.    

Further Study Needed of the Impact of Early-Life Surgery With Associated General Anesthesia on the Risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

Recent studies by Ing and colleagues (Ing) address the association between surgery, general anesthesia, ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), and other mental illnesses in young children. Frisch and colleagues (Frisch) raise a methodological issue and call on Ing to conduct additional analysis to correct bias due to underestimating the hazard ratio (HR) for circumcision in boys. Ing responds to Frisch et al that classification for circumcised boys is “unexposed” based on prior studies and because most circumcisions are done without general anesthesia. This issue has limited impact on HR bias.

Blockade of the NLRP3/caspase-1 axis attenuates ketamine-induced hippocampus pyroptosis and cognitive impairment in neonatal rats.

Background: Multiple studies have revealed that repeated or long-term exposure to ketamine causes neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction. Pyroptosis is an inflammatory form of programmed cell death that has been linked to various neurological diseases. However, the role of NLRP3/caspase-1 axis-related pyroptosis in ketamine-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive dysfunction remains uncertain.

Genistein Attenuates Isoflurane-Induced Neuroinflammation by Inhibiting TLR4-Mediated Microglial-Polarization in vivo and in vitro.

Background: Isoflurane, a widely used anesthetic in surgery, has been found to induce neurotoxicity. In parallel, genistein is thought to attenuate isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity, although underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we studied the protective effects of genistein on isoflurane-induced neuroinflammation in rats and BV2 cells.