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SmartTots and IARS News, Press Releases and Events
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SmartTots – Perspectives from the Front Lines

Millions of children undergo surgery annually. Recent studies suggest there may be reason for concern. This video, featuring Dr. Dean Andropoulos, Dr. Peter Davis, and Dr. Caleb Ing, provides a summary as to why research is needed and the type that is needed.

SmartTots to Help Make Anesthetics and Sedatives Safer for Children

Dr. Janet Woodcock, director of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research at the Food and Drug Administration, and Dr. Michael Roizen, of the International Anesthesia Research Society, unveil a new partnership that aims to make anesthesia safer for children.

Pediatric Anesthesia Questions and Myths-Mayo Clinic

Dr. Randall Flick at Mayo Clinic “debunks myths” and answers common questions raised by parents in regard to anesthesia.

Propofol Exposure Disturbs the Differentiation of Rodent Neural Stem Cells via an miR-124-3p/Sp1/Cdkn1b Axis

Accumulating studies have indicated that propofol may lead to neurotoxicity and its effect on neural stem cells (NSCs) may play pivotal role in propofol-related neurotoxicity. Previously, we found that propofol could promote NSCs proliferation and could regulate several microRNA expressions. However, the underlying mechanism between microRNAs and NSCs development after propofol exposure is still unclear.

Neonatal Ketamine Alters High-Frequency Oscillations and Synaptic Plasticity in the Subiculum But Does not Affect Sleep Macrostructure in Adolescent Rats

Exposure to sedative/hypnotic and anesthetic drugs, such as ketamine, during the critical period of synaptogenesis, causes profound neurotoxicity in the developing rodent and primate brains and is associated with poor cognitive outcomes later in life. The subiculum is especially vulnerable to acute neurotoxicity after neonatal exposure to sedative/hypnotic and anesthetic drugs. The subiculum acts as a relay center between the hippocampal complex and various cortical and subcortical brain regions and is also an independent generator of gamma oscillations.

Sevoflurane Induces Learning and Memory Impairment in Young Mice Through a Reduction in Neuronal Glucose Transporter 3

Sevoflurane, which is widely used in paediatric anaesthesia, induces neural apoptosis in the developing brain and cognitive impairment in young mammals. Glucose hypometabolism is the key pathophysiological modulator of cognitive dysfunction. However, the effects and mechanism of sevoflurane on cerebral glucose metabolism after its use as an anaesthetic and its complete elimination are still unknown. We therefore investigated the influence of sevoflurane on neuronal glucose transporter isoform 3 (GLUT3) expression, glucose metabolism and apoptosis in vivo and in vitro and on neurocognitive function in young mice 24 h after the third exposure to sevoflurane.

A Methyltransferase Inhibitor (Decitabine) Alleviates Intergenerational Effects of Paternal Neonatal Exposure to Anesthesia With Sevoflurane

Neonatal exposure to sevoflurane induces neurobehavioral and neuroendocrine abnormalities in exposed male rats (generation F0) and neurobehavioral, but not neuroendocrine, abnormalities in their male, but not female, offspring (generation F1). These effects of sevoflurane are accompanied by a hypermethylated neuron-specific K-2Cl (Kcc2) Cl exporter gene in the F0 spermatozoa and the F1 male hypothalamus, while the gene’s expression is reduced in the F0 and F1 hypothalamus. We investigated whether inhibition of deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferases (DNMTs) before paternal sevoflurane exposure could alleviate the anesthetic’s F0 and F1 effects.

An Overview on the Mechanisms of Neuroprotection and Neurotoxicity of Isoflurane and Sevoflurane in Experimental Studies

Since their first use, anaesthetic agents have seen major advancements and are now an indispensable element of surgical procedures. Two of the most used volatile anaesthetics are Isoflurane and Sevoflurane. These have neuroprotective effects on adult brains in different brain disorders, ranging from traumatic to hypoxic or ischemia-reperfusion injuries.