News and EventsSmartTots and IARS News, Press Releases and Events
SmartTots – Perspectives from the Front Lines
Millions of children undergo surgery annually. Recent studies suggest there may be reason for concern. This video, featuring Dr. Dean Andropoulos, Dr. Peter Davis, and Dr. Caleb Ing, provides a summary as to why research is needed and the type that is needed.
SmartTots to Help Make Anesthetics and Sedatives Safer for Children
Dr. Janet Woodcock, director of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research at the Food and Drug Administration, and Dr. Michael Roizen, of the International Anesthesia Research Society, unveil a new partnership that aims to make anesthesia safer for children.
Pediatric Anesthesia Questions and Myths-Mayo Clinic
Dr. Randall Flick at Mayo Clinic “debunks myths” and answers common questions raised by parents in regard to anesthesia.
Sevoflurane-induced learning deficits and spine loss via nectin-1/corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 signalling in neonatal mice
Sevoflurane is one of the most commonly used volatile anaesthetics in general anaesthesia in children. Sevoflurane anaesthesia (2–2.5% for 4–6 h) can cause neuronal apoptosis and long-term learning and memory impairment in multiple brain regions of neonatal rats. Therefore, it is necessary to study the acute and chronic mechanism of general anaesthetic-induced brain developmental injury.
Effects of non-obstetric surgery under ketamine anaesthesia in the middle stage of pregnancy on cognition in the offspring and underlying mechanisms
Recent evidence has shown that general anaesthesia can cause long-term neurotoxicity and cognitive dysfunction. Ketamine is commonly used in paediatric anaesthesia and antidepressant therapy. Increasing data indicate that ketamine can induce neuronal degeneration and learning and memory impairment. Whether maternal non-obstetric surgery under ketamine anaesthesia in the middle stage of pregnancy causes cognitive impairment in offspring is unclear.
Female rats are more vulnerable to lasting cognitive impairment after isoflurane exposure on postnatal day 4 than 7
The factors determining peak susceptibility of the developing brain to anaesthetics are unclear. It is unknown why postnatal day 7 (P7) male rats are more vulnerable to anaesthesia-induced memory deficits than littermate females. Given the precocious development of certain regions in the female brain during the neonatal critical period, we hypothesised that females are susceptible to anaesthetic brain injury at an earlier time point than previously tested.
Dexmedetomidine attenuates the neurotoxicity of propofol toward primary hippocampal neurons in vitro via Erk1/2/CREB/BDNF signaling pathways
Propofol is a commonly used general anesthetic for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia and critical care sedation in children, which may add risk to poor neurodevelopmental outcome. We aimed to evaluate the effect of propofol toward primary hippocampal neurons in vitro and the possibly neuroprotective effect of dexmedetomidine pretreatment, as well as the underlying mechanism.
Initially used as an analgesic and anesthetic, ketamine has unfortunately been abused as a popular recreational party drug due to its psychotropic effects. Over the last decade, ketamine has also emerged as an effective rapid-onset anti-depressant. The increasingly widespread use and misuse of the drug in infants and pregnant women has posed a concern about the neurotoxicity of ketamine to the immature brains of developing fetuses and children.
Isoflurane exposure in infant rats acutely increases aquaporin 4 and does not cause neurocognitive impairment
Isoflurane is commonly used in pediatric population, but its mechanism of action in cognition is unclear. Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) regulates water content in blood, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid. Various studies have provided evidence for the role of AQP4 in synaptic plasticity and neurocognition.