News and EventsSmartTots and IARS News, Press Releases and Events
SmartTots – Perspectives from the Front Lines
Millions of children undergo surgery annually. Recent studies suggest there may be reason for concern. This video, featuring Dr. Dean Andropoulos, Dr. Peter Davis, and Dr. Caleb Ing, provides a summary as to why research is needed and the type that is needed.
SmartTots to Help Make Anesthetics and Sedatives Safer for Children
Dr. Janet Woodcock, director of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research at the Food and Drug Administration, and Dr. Michael Roizen, of the International Anesthesia Research Society, unveil a new partnership that aims to make anesthesia safer for children.
Pediatric Anesthesia Questions and Myths-Mayo Clinic
Dr. Randall Flick at Mayo Clinic “debunks myths” and answers common questions raised by parents in regard to anesthesia.
Association Between Anesthesia Exposure and Neurocognitive and Neuroimaging Outcomes in Long-term Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Limited studies have reported associations between anesthesia and neurocognitive and neuroimaging outcomes, particularly in pediatric patients who undergo multiple exposures to anesthesia as part of chronic disease management.
Two decades ago, the possibility that anesthetics could harm the developing brain was identified in rodents. This work has been replicated in multiple species, including subhuman primates, raising serious concern in the anesthesia community and leading to a U.S. Food and Drug Administration warning on the use of anesthetic agents in young children. Heated discussions have divided healthcare providers and policy makers on the risks versus benefits of general anesthesia and surgery in pediatric populations.
Propofol induces impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis through inhibiting the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α
Propofol is a commonly used general anesthetic in patient care. Recent studies have shown that propofol has neurological side effects especially in young children, which raises a concern regarding the safety of its use. We explored the effects of the molecular mechanism of propofol on neuronal mitochondrial function in SH-SY5Y cells. Our results demonstrate that clinically relevant doses of propofol reduce the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in a dose- and time-dependent manner.
Volatile anesthetics are widely used in human medicine and generally considered to be safe in healthy individuals. In recent years, the safety of volatile anesthesia in pediatric patients has been questioned following reports of anesthetic induced neurotoxicity in pre-clinical studies. These studies in mice, rats, and primates have demonstrated that exposure to anesthetic agents during early post-natal periods can cause acute neurotoxicity, as well as later-life cognitive defects including deficits in learning and memory.
Limb Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Reduces Repeated Ketamine Exposure-Induced Adverse Effects in the Developing Brain of Rats
Prolonged or repeated exposure to ketamine, a common anesthetic in pediatrics, has been shown to induce neurotoxicity and long-term neurocognitive deficits in the developing brain. Therefore, identification of potential therapeutic targets for preventing or alleviating such neurodegeneration and neuroapoptosis induced by ketamine is urgently needed. Remote ischemic preconditioning of the limb provides neuroprotection in different models of cerebral injury. Thus, the present study aimed to assess whether remote ischemic preconditioning could have a neuroprotective effect against neurotoxicity induced by ketamine.
Disrupted folate metabolism with anesthesia leads to myelination deficits mediated by epigenetic regulation of ERMN
Exposure to anesthetics during early life may impair cognitive functions. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. We set out to determine effects of sevoflurane anesthesia on folate metabolism and myelination in young non-human primates, mice and children.