News and EventsSmartTots and IARS News, Press Releases and Events
SmartTots – Perspectives from the Front Lines
Millions of children undergo surgery annually. Recent studies suggest there may be reason for concern. This video, featuring Dr. Dean Andropoulos, Dr. Peter Davis, and Dr. Caleb Ing, provides a summary as to why research is needed and the type that is needed.
SmartTots to Help Make Anesthetics and Sedatives Safer for Children
Dr. Janet Woodcock, director of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research at the Food and Drug Administration, and Dr. Michael Roizen, of the International Anesthesia Research Society, unveil a new partnership that aims to make anesthesia safer for children.
Pediatric Anesthesia Questions and Myths-Mayo Clinic
Dr. Randall Flick at Mayo Clinic “debunks myths” and answers common questions raised by parents in regard to anesthesia.
The primary objective of this study was to describe in a geographically defined population the incidence of procedures requiring general anesthesia up to the child’s third birthday, and the patient characteristics associated with receiving these procedures. A...
The majority of studies evaluating neurocognition in humans who had procedures under anesthesia early in life found long-term deficits even though the typical anesthesia duration normalized to the human life span is much shorter than that shown to induce developmental abnormalities in rodents. Therefore, we studied whether subsequent environmental stressors contribute to deficiencies programmed by a brief neonatal etomidate exposure.
Insufficient Astrocyte-Derived Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Contributes to Propofol-Induced Neuron Death through Akt/Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β/Mitochondrial Fission Pathway
Growing animal evidence demonstrates that prolonged exposure to propofol during brain development induces widespread neuronal cell death, but there is little information on the role of astrocytes. Astrocytes can release neurotrophic growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which can exert the protective effect on neurons in paracrine fashion. We hypothesize that during propofol anesthesia, BDNF released from developing astrocytes may not be sufficient to prevent propofol-induced neurotoxicity.
Early Developmental Exposure to General Anesthetic Agents in Primary Neuron Culture Disrupts Synapse Formation via Actions on the mTOR Pathway
Human epidemiologic studies and laboratory investigations in animal models suggest that exposure to general anesthetic agents (GAs) have harmful effects on brain development. The mechanism underlying this putative iatrogenic condition is not clear and there are currently no accepted strategies for prophylaxis or treatment.
N-acetylcysteine prevents ketamine-induced adverse effects on development, heart rate and monoaminergic neurons in zebrafish
N-acetylcysteine, a precursor molecule of glutathione, is an antioxidant. Ketamine, a pediatric anesthetic, has been implicated in cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity including modulation of monoaminergic systems in mammals and zebrafish. Here, we show that N-acetylcysteine prevents ketamine’s adverse effects on development and monoaminergic neurons in zebrafish embryos.
Role of epigenetic mechanisms in transmitting the effects of neonatal sevoflurane exposure to the next generation of male, but not female, rats
Clinical studies report learning disabilities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders in those exposed to general anaesthesia early in life. Rats, primarily males, exposed to GABAergic anaesthetics as neonates exhibit behavioural abnormalities, exacerbated responses to stress, and reduced expression of hypothalamic K+-2Cl- Cl- exporter (Kcc2). The latter is implicated in development of psychiatric disorders, including male predominant autism spectrum disorders. We tested whether parental early life exposure to sevoflurane, the most frequently used anaesthetic in paediatrics, affects the next generation of unexposed rats.