News and EventsSmartTots and IARS News, Press Releases and Events
SmartTots – Perspectives from the Front Lines
Millions of children undergo surgery annually. Recent studies suggest there may be reason for concern. This video, featuring Dr. Dean Andropoulos, Dr. Peter Davis, and Dr. Caleb Ing, provides a summary as to why research is needed and the type that is needed.
SmartTots to Help Make Anesthetics and Sedatives Safer for Children
Dr. Janet Woodcock, director of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research at the Food and Drug Administration, and Dr. Michael Roizen, of the International Anesthesia Research Society, unveil a new partnership that aims to make anesthesia safer for children.
Pediatric Anesthesia Questions and Myths-Mayo Clinic
Dr. Randall Flick at Mayo Clinic “debunks myths” and answers common questions raised by parents in regard to anesthesia.
Role of epigenetic mechanisms in transmitting the effects of neonatal sevoflurane exposure to the next generation of male, but not female, rats
Clinical studies report learning disabilities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders in those exposed to general anaesthesia early in life. Rats, primarily males, exposed to GABAergic anaesthetics as neonates exhibit behavioural abnormalities, exacerbated responses to stress, and reduced expression of hypothalamic K+-2Cl- Cl- exporter (Kcc2). The latter is implicated in development of psychiatric disorders, including male predominant autism spectrum disorders. We tested whether parental early life exposure to sevoflurane, the most frequently used anaesthetic in paediatrics, affects the next generation of unexposed rats.
Dexmedetomidine attenuates the propofol-induced long-term neurotoxicity in the developing brain of rats by enhancing the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway
Propofol induces short- and long-term neurotoxicity. Our previous study showed that dexmedetomidine (Dex) can attenuate the propofol-induced acute neurotoxicity in rodents by enhancing the PI3K/Akt signaling. However, whether treatment of young rats with Dex could protect them from long-term neurotoxicity induced by propofol is unclear.
Neonatal exposure of ketamine inhibited the induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation without impairing the spatial memory of adult rats
Ketamine is one of general anesthetics and has been commonly used in obstetric and pediatric anesthesia. However, effects of exposure to ketamine on neonatal brain are largely unknown. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of neonatal exposure of ketamine on spatial memory and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus of adult rats.
Effect of melatonin on attenuating the isoflurane-induced oxidative damage is related to PKCα/Nrf2 signaling pathway in developing rats
Isoflurane, an inhalational anesthesia, has frequently been used in pediatric anesthesia. However, research indicates that isoflurane can induce oxidative stress and affect neural and cognitive development. Melatonin, an endogenous hormone that exhibits antioxidant functions, can play a neuroprotective role by activating the PKCα/Nrf2 signaling pathway in response to oxidative stress. This study aims to determine whether the effect of melatonin on isoflurane-induced oxidative stress is related to activation of the PKCα/Nrf2 signaling pathway.
Signaling network between the dysregulated expression of microRNAs and mRNAs in propofol-induced developmental neurotoxicity in mice
Mounting evidence has demonstrated that general anesthetics could induce acute neuroapoptosis in developing animals followed by long-term cognitive dysfunction, with the mechanisms remaining largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the intravenous anesthetic propofol on the profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and their interactive signaling networks in the developing mouse hippocampus.
Ketamine, though widely used in pediatric anesthesia, may induce cortical neurotoxicity in young patients. This study focused on an in vitro model of rat brain embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived neurons to investigate the effects of microRNA-107 (miR-107) on ketamine-induced neural injury.