August 2014

SmartTots Featured at Canadian Anesthesiologists’ Society Annual Meeting 2014

SmartTots would like to extend a special thank-you to the Canadian Anesthesiologists’ Society, for providing SmartTots with complimentary booth space at the their annual meeting in St. John’s, Newfoundland.  We are grateful for the continued support from our affiliated organizations and their members.

Research News & Updates

Long term neurotoxicity by general anesthetics in infants

A large volume of literature has accumulated in the form of animal and human studies which have implicated general anesthetic drugs like ketamine, propofol, volatile agents, and benzodiazepines in the development of neurodegenerative conditions in later life.  A direct cause effect relationship is yet to be firmly established.  Further research and evidence in this arena is demanded. Read more

Down-regulation of MicroRNA-21 Is Involved in the Propofol-induced Neurotoxicity Observed in Human Stem Cell-derived Neurons.

These data suggest that (1) human embryonic stem cell-derived neurons represent a promising in vitro human model for studying anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity, (2) propofol induces cell death in human embryonic stem cell-derived neurons, and (3) the propofol-induced cell death may occur via a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/miR-21/Sprouty 2-dependent mechanism. Read more

Anesthetic Preconditioning Inhibits Isoflurane-Mediated Apoptosis in the Developing Rat Brain

The ISO-mediated increase in cleaved caspase-3 in the postnatal day 7 rat brain is ameliorated by preconditioning with a brief anesthetic exposure, and differences were not detected in other markers of neuronal injury. Read more

Both JNK and P38 MAPK pathways participate in the protection by dexmedetomidine against isoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis in the hippocampus of neonatal rats.

Our results indicate that the JNK and p38 pathways, not the ERK pathway, are involved in dexmedetomidine-induced neuroprotection against isoflurane effects. Read more

Dexmedetomidine provides neuroprotection: impact on ketamine-induced neuroapoptosis in the developing rat brain.

Ketamine caused neuroapoptosis and impaired brain functions in the developing rat brain, which can be effectively attenuated by dexmedetomidine. Dexmedetomidine alone was not neurotoxic to the developing brain. Read more

Endocrine and Neurobehavioral Abnormalities Induced by Propofol Administered to Neonatal Rats.

Propofol-caused acute increases in corticosterone levels and γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-mediated excitation at the time of anesthesia may play mechanistic roles in development of exacerbated endocrine responses to stress and neurobehavioral abnormalities. Read more

Comparison of neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment in neonatal mice exposed to propofol or isoflurane.

Both isoflurane and propofol caused significant apoptosis in the mouse developing brain, with isoflurane being more potent. Isoflurane significantly increased levels of the plasma neurodegenerative biomarker, S100β. However, these neurodegenerative effects of isoflurane and propofol in the developing brain were not associated with effects on inflammation or with cognitive dysfunction in later life. Read more

Repeated Administration of Ketamine can Induce Hippocampal Neurodegeneration and Long-Term Cognitive Impairment via the ROS/HIF-1α Pathway in Developing Rats.

We suggest that ketamine-induced neurodegeneration in neonatal rats, followed by long-term cognitive deficits, might be mediated via the ROS/HIF-1α pathway. Read more

Impact of ketamine on learning and memory function, neuronal apoptosis and its potential association with miR-214 and PTEN in adolescent rats.

Ketamine at a dose of 80 mg/kg in the adolescent rats is able to induce the learning and memory impairment and neurodegeneration, in which the down-regulation of miR-214 and high expression of PTEN protein may be involved. Read more