Pain Manag, March 2015.
Opperer M, Gerner P, Memtsoudis SG



SUMMARY  A multitude of studies have focused on individual additives to local anesthetics and their effect on quality, onset, duration, spread and selectivity, as well as the potential toxic effects of their use. This review aims to give a broad overview of the current evidence in this developing field, based on beneficial and adverse effects of these drugs. We discuss the limitations of the available data and hope to convey implications and future perspectives for clinicians and researchers alike. 

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