Over the past decade, a large body of evidence has suggested that there may be an association between anesthesia exposure and neurocognitive deficits in children. The majority of data are derived from animal studies, but some human studies support an association between single or multiple anesthesia exposures in young children and cognitive deficits.1 With the exception of a recent prospective study and a recent ambidirectional study,2,3 human studies are limited to retrospective cohort studies that lack adequate controls or attention to the impact of confounding variables. On December 14, 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued the warning that “repeated or lengthy use of general anesthetic and sedation drugs during surgeries or procedures in children younger than 3 years or in pregnant women during their third trimester may affect the development of children’s brains.
- Neonatal general anesthesia causes lasting alterations in excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the ventrobasal thalamus of adolescent female rats
- Mild hypothermia ameliorates anesthesia toxicity in the neonatal macaque brain
- Using animal models to evaluate the functional consequences of anesthesia during early neurodevelopment
- microRNA‐124 attenuates isoflurane‐induced neurological deficits in neonatal rats via binding to EGR1
- Hemin treatment protects neonatal rats from sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway