Over the past decade, a large body of evidence has suggested that there may be an association between anesthesia exposure and neurocognitive deficits in children. The majority of data are derived from animal studies, but some human studies support an association between single or multiple anesthesia exposures in young children and cognitive deficits.1 With the exception of a recent prospective study and a recent ambidirectional study,2,3 human studies are limited to retrospective cohort studies that lack adequate controls or attention to the impact of confounding variables. On December 14, 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued the warning that “repeated or lengthy use of general anesthetic and sedation drugs during surgeries or procedures in children younger than 3 years or in pregnant women during their third trimester may affect the development of children’s brains.
- Alternative technique or mitigating strategy for sevoflurane-induced neurodegeneration: a randomized controlled dose-escalation study of dexmedetomidine in neonatal rats
- Sevoflurane Affects Oxidative Stress and Alters Apoptosis Status in Children and Cultured Neural Stem Cells
- Neurotoxicity of propofol on rat hypoglossal motoneurons in vitro
- Hydrogen gas attenuates sevoflurane neurotoxicity through inhibiting nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells signaling and proinflammatory cytokine release in neonatal rats
- Dexmedetomidine-mediated neuroprotection against sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity extends to several brain regions in neonatal rats