Compound porcine cerebroside and ganglioside injection (CPCGI) has been widely applied in clinical practice in China to treat functional confusion caused by brain diseases. Sevoflurane, a frequently-used inhalational anesthetic, was discovered to have neurotoxicity that can cause neurological damage in patients. The present study was performed to investigate the protective effect of CPCGI on sevoflurane-induced nerve damage and to reveal the neuroprotective mechanisms of CPCGI.
Material and Methods
Firstly, the hippocampal neurons were separated from Sprague-Dawley embryonic rats, and were stimulated by 3% sevoflurane for different times (0, 2, 4, and 6 h). Then, cell viability and cell apoptosis were assessed by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry (FCM), respectively. Western blot analysis was used to determine the apoptosis-related protein expression levels.
The results demonstrated that 3% sevoflurane significantly inhibited cell viability but induced cell apoptosis in neurons in a time-dependent manner. Treatment with 3% sevoflurane also promoted the Bax (B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl2)-associated X protein) and cleaved caspase3 protein expressions, and suppressed Bcl-2 and pro-caspase3 expressions in hippocampal neurons. In addition, phosphorylated (p)-p38 and p-p65 expression and the ratio of p-p38/p38 and p-p65/p65 were upregulated in a time-dependent manner after 3% sevoflurane treatment. Further analysis indicated that all the effects of 3% sevoflurane on hippocampal neurons were reversed by CPCGI pre-treatment.
We demonstrated the neuroprotective role of CPCGI in sevoflurane-stimulated neuronal cell damage via regulation of the MAPK/NF-kappaB signaling pathway.