THE impact of anesthesia on the developing brain continues to be hotly debated. In this issue, Hu et al.,1 from the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, report an association between childhood exposure to multiple anesthetics and increased risk of learning disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study uses a well-established birth cohort and is similar to two studies published previously by the same Mayo Clinic group.2,3 The earlier studies were criticized for including children who were anesthetized in an era that relied on somewhat outdated drugs and monitoring. The study reported in this issue included children anesthetized with more contemporary agents and monitoring. The results are almost identical to the previous studies. All find an association between exposure to anesthesia in early childhood and subsequent diagnosis of learning disability and/or ADHD, and the associations were stronger with multiple exposures compared with single exposures.
- False Interpretation of Scientific Data Leads to Biased Conclusions About the Association Between Cesarean Deliveries Under General Anesthesia and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder.
- Exposure to General Anesthesia May Contribute to the Association between Cesarean Delivery and Autism Spectrum Disorder.
- Effects of Xenon-Based Anesthetic Exposure on the Expression Levels of Polysialic Acid Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (PSA-NCAM) on Human Neural Stem Cell-Derived Neurons.
- Downregulation of CDK5 Restores Sevoflurane-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction by Promoting SIRT1-Mediated Autophagy.
- Desflurane and Surgery Exposure During Pregnancy Decrease Synaptic Integrity and Induce Functional Deficits in Juvenile Offspring Mice.