THE impact of anesthesia on the developing brain continues to be hotly debated. In this issue, Hu et al.,1 from the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, report an association between childhood exposure to multiple anesthetics and increased risk of learning disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study uses a well-established birth cohort and is similar to two studies published previously by the same Mayo Clinic group.2,3 The earlier studies were criticized for including children who were anesthetized in an era that relied on somewhat outdated drugs and monitoring. The study reported in this issue included children anesthetized with more contemporary agents and monitoring. The results are almost identical to the previous studies. All find an association between exposure to anesthesia in early childhood and subsequent diagnosis of learning disability and/or ADHD, and the associations were stronger with multiple exposures compared with single exposures.
- When Your Child Needs Surgery, Don’t Fear Anesthesia, Says American Society of Anesthesiologists
- Neurotoxicity of Inhalation Anesthetics in the Neonatal Rat Brain: Effects on Behavior and Neurodegeneration in the Piriform Cortex.
- Does pediatric anesthesia cause brain damage? Addressing parental and provider concerns in light of compelling animal studies and seemingly ambivalent human data.
- The postoperative effect of sevoflurane inhalational anesthesia on cognitive function and inflammatory response of pediatric patients.
- General anesthetics and cytotoxicity: possible implications for brain health.