THE impact of anesthesia on the developing brain continues to be hotly debated. In this issue, Hu et al.,1 from the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, report an association between childhood exposure to multiple anesthetics and increased risk of learning disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study uses a well-established birth cohort and is similar to two studies published previously by the same Mayo Clinic group.2,3 The earlier studies were criticized for including children who were anesthetized in an era that relied on somewhat outdated drugs and monitoring. The study reported in this issue included children anesthetized with more contemporary agents and monitoring. The results are almost identical to the previous studies. All find an association between exposure to anesthesia in early childhood and subsequent diagnosis of learning disability and/or ADHD, and the associations were stronger with multiple exposures compared with single exposures.
- Alternative technique or mitigating strategy for sevoflurane-induced neurodegeneration: a randomized controlled dose-escalation study of dexmedetomidine in neonatal rats
- Sevoflurane Affects Oxidative Stress and Alters Apoptosis Status in Children and Cultured Neural Stem Cells
- Neurotoxicity of propofol on rat hypoglossal motoneurons in vitro
- Hydrogen gas attenuates sevoflurane neurotoxicity through inhibiting nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells signaling and proinflammatory cytokine release in neonatal rats
- Dexmedetomidine-mediated neuroprotection against sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity extends to several brain regions in neonatal rats