THE impact of anesthesia on the developing brain continues to be hotly debated. In this issue, Hu et al.,1 from the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, report an association between childhood exposure to multiple anesthetics and increased risk of learning disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study uses a well-established birth cohort and is similar to two studies published previously by the same Mayo Clinic group.2,3 The earlier studies were criticized for including children who were anesthetized in an era that relied on somewhat outdated drugs and monitoring. The study reported in this issue included children anesthetized with more contemporary agents and monitoring. The results are almost identical to the previous studies. All find an association between exposure to anesthesia in early childhood and subsequent diagnosis of learning disability and/or ADHD, and the associations were stronger with multiple exposures compared with single exposures.
- Debate Over Neurotoxicity in Pediatric Anesthesia Draws No Firm Conclusions
- Neonatal Propofol Anesthesia Changes Expression of Synaptic Plasticity Proteins and Increases Stereotypic and Anxyolitic Behavior in Adult Rats
- Elamipretide (SS-31) Ameliorates Isoflurane-Induced Long-Term Impairments of Mitochondrial Morphogenesis and Cognition in Developing Rats
- Propofol-induced downregulation of NR2B membrane translocation in hippocampus and spatial memory deficits of neonatal mice