THE impact of anesthesia on the developing brain continues to be hotly debated. In this issue, Hu et al.,1 from the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, report an association between childhood exposure to multiple anesthetics and increased risk of learning disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study uses a well-established birth cohort and is similar to two studies published previously by the same Mayo Clinic group.2,3 The earlier studies were criticized for including children who were anesthetized in an era that relied on somewhat outdated drugs and monitoring. The study reported in this issue included children anesthetized with more contemporary agents and monitoring. The results are almost identical to the previous studies. All find an association between exposure to anesthesia in early childhood and subsequent diagnosis of learning disability and/or ADHD, and the associations were stronger with multiple exposures compared with single exposures.
- Cognitive Impairment and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induced by Repeated Short-Term Sevoflurane Exposure in Early Life of Rats
- Comparison of neurotoxicity of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant in brachial plexus block in rats of different age
- Effect of multiple neonatal sevoflurane exposures on hippocampal apolipoprotein E levels and learning and memory abilities
- Lipid profiling as an effective approach for identifying biomarkers/adverse events associated with pediatric anesthesia
- Influence of nitrous oxide on granule cell migration in the dentate gyrus of the neonatal rat