Concerns about anaesthesia-related neurological injury in young children have been increasing among parents, health-care providers, and regulatory organisations. These concerns were first prompted by animal studies that showed accelerated apoptosis and neuronal death after exposure to general anaesthetic drugs. Most commonly used general anaesthetic drugs have since been found to cause pervasive adverse neurological effects in vitro and in immature animals, including non-human primates. This issue gained widespread prominence in 2017, when the US Food and Drug Administration issued a safety communication stating that the use of general anaesthetic drugs “for lengthy periods of time or over multiple surgeries or procedures may negatively affect brain development in children younger than 3 years”. Subsequently, warnings were added to the labels for these medicines.
- SmartTots Panel on Pediatric Anesthesia Neurotoxicity Research
- Anesthesia and Neurotoxicity Study Design, Execution, and Reporting in the Non-Human Primate: A Deep Dive
- Anesthetic activation of GABAA receptors in astrocytes trigger a persistent increase in cell-surface expression of α5GABAA receptors in neurons via IL-1β in mice
- Behavioural impairments after exposure of neonatal mice to propofol are accompanied by reductions in neuronal activity in cortical circuitry.
- Protective Effect of GM1 Attenuates Hippocampus and Cortex Apoptosis After Ketamine Exposure in Neonatal Rat via PI3K/AKT/GSK3β Pathway.