Concerns about anaesthesia-related neurological injury in young children have been increasing among parents, health-care providers, and regulatory organisations. These concerns were first prompted by animal studies that showed accelerated apoptosis and neuronal death after exposure to general anaesthetic drugs. Most commonly used general anaesthetic drugs have since been found to cause pervasive adverse neurological effects in vitro and in immature animals, including non-human primates. This issue gained widespread prominence in 2017, when the US Food and Drug Administration issued a safety communication stating that the use of general anaesthetic drugs “for lengthy periods of time or over multiple surgeries or procedures may negatively affect brain development in children younger than 3 years”. Subsequently, warnings were added to the labels for these medicines.
- Cell cycle activation contributes to isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in the developing brain and the protective effect of CR8.
- Protective Effects of Xenon on Propofol-Induced Neurotoxicity in Human Neural Stem Cell-Derived Models.
- Neonatal exposure to propofol affects interneuron development in the piriform cortex and causes neurobehavioral deficits in adult mice.
- The expression of glucose transporters and mitochondrial division and fusion proteins in rats exposed to hypoxic preconditioning to attenuate propofol neurotoxicity.
- Inhibition of microRNA-375 ameliorated ketamine-induced neurotoxicity in human embryonic stem cell derived neurons.