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SmartTots and IARS News, Press Releases and Events
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SmartTots – Perspectives from the Front Lines

Millions of children undergo surgery annually. Recent studies suggest there may be reason for concern. This video, featuring Dr. Dean Andropoulos, Dr. Peter Davis, and Dr. Caleb Ing, provides a summary as to why research is needed and the type that is needed.

SmartTots to Help Make Anesthetics and Sedatives Safer for Children

Dr. Janet Woodcock, director of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research at the Food and Drug Administration, and Dr. Michael Roizen, of the International Anesthesia Research Society, unveil a new partnership that aims to make anesthesia safer for children.

Pediatric Anesthesia Questions and Myths-Mayo Clinic

Dr. Randall Flick at Mayo Clinic “debunks myths” and answers common questions raised by parents in regard to anesthesia.

Cyclophilin D Contributes to Anesthesia Neurotoxicity in the Developing Brain

Anesthetic sevoflurane induces mitochondrial dysfunction, impairment of neurogenesis, and cognitive impairment in young mice, but the underlying mechanism remains to be determined. Cyclophilin D (CypD) is a modulatory factor for the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). We, therefore, set out to evaluate the role of CypD in these sevoflurane-induced changes in vitro and in young mice.

Evaluation of the Toxicity of Sugammadex in Zebrafish Larvae

Sugammadex is a new neuromuscular blockade reversal agent. Recently, it has been used in patients under general anesthesia. However, sugammadex could be toxic to fetuses and pediatric patients under 3 years of age. In this study, we demonstrated the safety of sugammadex in fetuses, using zebrafish larvae. Furthermore, its neurotoxicity was evaluated using neuronal cell lines.

Potential Neurodevelopmental Effects of Pediatric Intensive Care Sedation and Analgesia: Repetitive Benzodiazepine and Opioid Exposure Alters Expression of Glial and Synaptic Proteins in Juvenile Rats

Sedatives are suspected contributors to neurologic dysfunction in PICU patients, to whom they are administered during sensitive neurodevelopment. Relevant preclinical modeling has largely used comparatively brief anesthesia in infant age-approximate animals, with insufficient study of repetitive combined drug administration during childhood. We hypothesized that childhood neurodevelopment is selectively vulnerable to repeated treatment with benzodiazepine and opioid. We report a preclinical model of combined midazolam and morphine in early childhood age-approximate rats.

Sevoflurane inhibits neuronal migration and axon growth in the developing mouse cerebral cortex

The highly organized laminar structure of the mammalian brain is dependent on successful neuronal migration, and migration deficits can cause lissencephaly and behavioral and cognitive defects. Here, we investigated the contribution of neuronal migration dysregulation to anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity in the fetal brain. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice at embryonic day 14.5 received 2.5% sevoflurane daily for two days. Cortical neuron migration and axon lengths were evaluated using GFP immunostaining. Morris water maze tests were performed to assess the effects of sevoflurane exposure on spatial memory in offspring.

Iron overload contributes to general anaesthesia-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive deficits

Increasing evidence suggests that multiple or long-time exposure to general anaesthesia (GA) could be detrimental to cognitive development in young subjects and might also contribute to accelerated neurodegeneration in the elderly. Iron is essential for normal neuronal function, and excess iron in the brain is implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases. However, the role of iron in GA-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive deficits remains elusive.

Neonatal Exposure to Anesthesia Leads to Cognitive Deficits in Old Age: Prevention With Intranasal Administration of Insulin in Mice

Recent pre-clinical and clinical studies suggest that general anesthesia in infants and children may increase the risk of learning disabilities. Currently, there is no treatment for preventing anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity and potential long-term functional impairment. Animal studies have shown that neonatal exposure to anesthesia can induce acute neurotoxicity and long-term behavioral changes that can be detected a few months later. It is currently unknown whether neonatal exposure, especially repeated exposures, to general anesthesia can induce or increase the risk for cognitive impairment during aging.