Sevoflurane is the most widely used anesthetic administered by inhalation. Exposure to sevoflurane can elicit learning deficits and abnormal cognitive disorder. In this study, we investigated the function of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) Gm15621. Primary hippocampal neuron cells were used to analyze the function of lncRNA Gm15621 in vitro. The tunel, inflammation markers, and cell survival rates were detected to evaluate the function of lncRNA Gm15621. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to identify the interaction between microRNA 133a and Gm15621. We found that lncRNA Gm15621 located in the cytoplasm. The expression of lncRNA Gm15621 was decreased with the development of sevoflurane exposure. Overexpression of lncRNA Gm15621 significantly reduced the apoptosis and cell survival rates. The inflammation response was also attenuated in lncRNA Gm15621 overexpressed group. The dual-luciferase assay revealed that miR-133a was the direct target of lncRNA Gm15621. In addition, we also found that Sox4 was a downstream target of miR-133a and lncRNA Gm15621 exerted its biological functions by regulating the expression of Sox4. In summary, our findings revealed that lncRNA Gm15621 ameliorated the sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity and the important role of Gm15621/miR-133a/Sox4 axis in cognitive disorder.