Neuroimaging has been increasingly used as a modality to study the impact of pain, analgesia, and anesthetics on pediatric neurodevelopment. The sixth biennial Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopmental Assessment (PANDA) Symposium addressed the 2016 US Food and Drug Administration drug safety warning regarding the potential neurotoxic effects of commonly used anesthetic and sedative medications in children, and included a session discussing the use of various neuroimaging techniques, to detect structural, metabolic, and functional brain changes that can occur with exposure to pain and to anesthetic medications. The presenters concluded that advanced multimodal magnetic resonance imaging techniques are useful in detecting the aforementioned changes, which were found to be pain-specific and anesthetic agent-specific.
- Prenatal Exposure to General Anesthesia and Childhood Behavioral Deficit
- Increasing the interval between repeated anesthetic exposures reduces long‐lasting synaptic changes in late post‐natal mice
- Tau Contributes to Sevoflurane-induced Neurocognitive Impairment in Neonatal Mice
- Neonatal exposure to sevoflurane expands the window of vulnerability to adverse effects of subsequent exposure to sevoflurane and alters hippocampal morphology via decitabine-sensitive mechanisms
- Sevoflurane Post-Conditioning Ameliorates Neuronal Deficits and Axon Demyelination After Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Brain Injury: Role of Microglia/Macrophage