Clinical researchers studying the long-term neurocognitive effects of anesthetic and sedative agents on children continue to struggle with identifying a phenotype for anesthetic neurotoxicity, the window of vulnerability, and the toxicity threshold in terms of concentration and duration. The Sixth Biennial Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopment Assessment (PANDA) symposium at Columbia University included a moderated poster presentation session where 4 investigators presented their latest contributions to the landscape of clinical anesthetic neurotoxicity research. A lack of standardization in the design of clinical studies in terms of age at exposure, duration and type of exposure, and outcome measures assessed were highlighted by all the investigators. Suggestions for the future direction of clinical trials included the implementation of more consistent study parameters and the employment of standardized neurocognitive testing and imaging before and after exposure to general anesthesia. Presentations covered a broad range of topics including the valid translation of preclinical studies to human subjects, the quantification of real-world exposures to anesthetic and sedative medications, and possible alternatives to these exposures.
- Propofol and Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Early Childhood Do Not Influence Seizure Threshold in Adult Rats.
- Sevoflurane Exposure in the Developing Brain Induces Hyperactivity, Anxiety-Free, and Enhancement of Memory Consolidation in Mice.
- Fentanyl induces autism-like behaviours in mice by hypermethylation of the glutamate receptor gene Grin2b.
- Multiple exposures to sevoflurane across postnatal development may cause cognitive deficits in older age.
- Mitochondria-Related Ferroptosis Drives Cognitive Deficits in Neonatal Mice Following Sevoflurane Administration.