Anesthetics are deemed necessary for all major surgical procedures. However, they have also been found to exert neurotoxic effects when tested on various experimental models, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Earlier studies have implicated mitochondrial fragmentation as a potential target of anesthetic-induced toxicity, although clinical strategies to protect their structure and function remain sparse. Here, we sought to determine if preserving mitochondrial networks with a non-toxic, short-life synthetic peptide-P110, would protect cortical neurons against both inhalational and intravenous anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. This study provides the first direct and comparative account of three key anesthetics (desflurane, propofol, and ketamine) when used under identical conditions, and demonstrates their impact on neonatal, rat cortical neuronal viability, neurite outgrowth and synaptic assembly. Furthermore, we discovered that inhibiting Fis1-mediated mitochondrial fission reverses anesthetic-induced aberrations in an agent-specific manner. This study underscores the importance of designing mitigation strategies invoking mitochondria-mediated protection from anesthetic-induced toxicity in both animals and humans.