Infants and young children are in a period of rapid neurodevelopment, making them more vulnerable to neurotoxic agents. A topic of much debate is how persistent and pervasive cognitive delays are for children exposed to anesthesia at a young age. The US Food and Drug Administration issued a warning in late 2016 calling for providers to share information about such risks with families before any medical interventions requiring use of anesthetics. This article offers the pediatric generalist some background on the warning and tips for counseling families before a procedure as well as reminders for surveilling beyond a procedure.

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