Although accumulating evidence has suggested that microRNAs (miRNAs) have a serious impact on cognitive function and are associated with the etiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders, their expression in sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in the developing brain has not been characterized. In the present study, the miRNAs expression pattern in neonatal hippocampus samples (24 h after sevoflurane exposure) was investigated and 9 miRNAs were selected, which were associated with brain development and cognition in order to perform a bioinformatic analysis. Previous microfluidic chip assay had detected 29 upregulated and 24 downregulated miRNAs in the neonatal rat hippocampus, of which 7 selected deregulated miRNAs were identified by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A total of 85 targets of selected deregulated miRNAs were analyzed using bioinformatics and the main enriched metabolic pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase and Wnt pathways may have been involved in molecular mechanisms with regard to neuronal cell body, dendrite and synapse. The observations of the present study provided a novel understanding regarding the regulatory mechanism of miRNAs underlying sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity, therefore benefitting the improvement of the prevention and treatment strategies of volatile anesthetics related neurotoxicity.