Over the past decade, a large body of evidence has suggested that there may be an association between anesthesia exposure and neurocognitive deficits in children. The majority of data are derived from animal studies, but some human studies support an association between single or multiple anesthesia exposures in young children and cognitive deficits.1 With the exception of a recent prospective study and a recent ambidirectional study,2,3 human studies are limited to retrospective cohort studies that lack adequate controls or attention to the impact of confounding variables. On December 14, 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued the warning that “repeated or lengthy use of general anesthetic and sedation drugs during surgeries or procedures in children younger than 3 years or in pregnant women during their third trimester may affect the development of children’s brains.
- Ketamine-induced neurotoxicity in neurodevelopment: A synopsis of main pathways based on recent in vivo experimental findings.
- Ferroptosis contributes to isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity and learning and memory impairment.
- RIPK1/RIPK3-Mediated Necroptosis is Involved in Sevoflurane-Induced Neonatal Neurotoxicity in the Rat Hippocampus.
- lncRNA Xist regulates sevoflurane-induced social and emotional impairment by modulating miR-98-5p/EDEM1 signaling axis in neonatal mice.
- Hypermethylation of EFEMP1 in the Hippocampus May Be Related to the Deficit in Spatial Memory of Rat Neonates Triggered by Repeated Administration of Propofol.