Over the past decade, a large body of evidence has suggested that there may be an association between anesthesia exposure and neurocognitive deficits in children. The majority of data are derived from animal studies, but some human studies support an association between single or multiple anesthesia exposures in young children and cognitive deficits.1 With the exception of a recent prospective study and a recent ambidirectional study,2,3 human studies are limited to retrospective cohort studies that lack adequate controls or attention to the impact of confounding variables. On December 14, 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued the warning that “repeated or lengthy use of general anesthetic and sedation drugs during surgeries or procedures in children younger than 3 years or in pregnant women during their third trimester may affect the development of children’s brains.
- Perioperative Neurocognitive Disorder
- Overexpression of lncRNA Gm15621 alleviates apoptosis and inflammation response resulting from sevoflurane treatment through inhibiting miR-133a/Sox4.
- Role of autophagy in sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in neonatal rat hippocampal cells.
- The positive allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors mRNA in immature hippocampal rat neurons by midazolam affects receptor expression and induces apoptosis.
- Euxanthone Ameliorates Sevoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity in Neonatal Mice.