The development and refinement of practices for the safe administration of anesthesia to children is a major success story in modern medicine. During the past several decades, there have been significant improvements in safety standards, cardiopulmonary monitoring, delivery systems, and airway management specific to the pediatric patient undergoing anesthesia. Millions of children receive anesthesia each year for surgical, procedural, or diagnostic purposes, and the majority of these patients receive a general anesthetic.