Anesthesiol Clin, March 2014.
Lin EP, Soriano SG, Loepke AW.


All routinely utilized sedatives and anesthetics have been found neurotoxic in a wide variety of animal species, including non-human primates. Neurotoxic effects observed in animals include histologic evidence for apoptotic neuronal cell death and subsequent learning and memory impairment. Several cohort studies in neonates with significant comorbidities requiring surgical procedures early in life have also demonstrated abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes. This article provides an overview of the currently available data from both animal experiments and human clinical studies regarding the effects of sedatives and anesthetics on the developing brain.

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