Numerous animal models have been used to study developmental neurotoxicity associated with short-term or prolonged exposure of common general anesthetics at clinically relevant concentrations. Pediatric anesthesia models using the nonhuman primate (NHP) may more accurately reflect the human condition because of their phylogenetic similarity to humans with regard to reproduction, development, neuroanatomy, and cognition. Although they are not as widely used as other animal models, the contribution of NHP models in the study of anesthetic-induced developmental neurotoxicity has been essential. In this review, we discuss how neonatal NHP animals have been used for modeling pediatric anesthetic exposure; how NHPs have addressed key data gaps and application of the NHP model for the studies of general anesthetic-induced developmental neurotoxicity. The appropriate application and evaluation of the NHP model in the study of general anesthetic-induced developmental neurotoxicity have played a key role in enhancing the understanding and awareness of the potential neurotoxicity associated with pediatric general anesthetics.

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Cheng Wang et al.
Anesthesia & Analgesia February 2022