Two prior population-based (children born in Olmsted County, MN), retrospective cohort studies both found that multiple exposures to anesthesia before age 3 were associated with a significant increase in the frequency of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD) later in life. The primary purpose of this secondary analysis of these data was to test the hypothesis that a single exposure to anesthesia before age 3 was associated with an increased risk of ADHD. We also examined the association of single exposures with LD and the need for individualized educational plans as secondary outcomes.

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