Sevoflurane is commonly used as a general anesthetic in neonates to aged patients. Preconditioning or postconditioning with sevoflurane protects neurons from excitotoxic injury. Conversely, sevoflurane exposure induces neurotoxicity during early or late life. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism of the dual effect of sevoflurane on neurons. Autophagy is believed to control neuronal homeostasis. We hypothesized that autophagy determined the dual effect of sevoflurane on neurons.


DTome was used to identify the direct protein target (DPT) of sevoflurane. The STRING database was employed to investigate the proteins associated with the DPTs. Protein-protein interaction was assessed using Cytoscape. WebGestalt was used to analyze gene set enrichment. The linkage between candidate genes and autophagy was identified using GeneCards.


This study found that 23 essential DPTs of sevoflurane interacted with 77 proteins from the STRING database. GABARAPL1 and 2, both of which are DPT- and autophagy-associated proteins, were significantly expressed in the brain and enriched in GABAergic synapses.


Taken together, our findings showed that the network of sevoflurane-DPT-GABARAPL1 and 2 is related to the dual effect of sevoflurane on neurons.

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