THE impact of anesthesia on the developing brain continues to be hotly debated. In this issue, Hu et al.,1 from the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, report an association between childhood exposure to multiple anesthetics and increased risk of learning disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study uses a well-established birth cohort and is similar to two studies published previously by the same Mayo Clinic group.2,3 The earlier studies were criticized for including children who were anesthetized in an era that relied on somewhat outdated drugs and monitoring. The study reported in this issue included children anesthetized with more contemporary agents and monitoring. The results are almost identical to the previous studies. All find an association between exposure to anesthesia in early childhood and subsequent diagnosis of learning disability and/or ADHD, and the associations were stronger with multiple exposures compared with single exposures.
- Association Between Anesthesia Exposure and Neurocognitive and Neuroimaging Outcomes in Long-term Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
- GAS, PANDA, and MASK – No Evidence of Clinical Anesthetic Neurotoxicity!
- Propofol induces impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis through inhibiting the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α
- Neurotoxicity of anesthetics: Mechanisms and meaning from mouse intervention studies
- Limb Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Reduces Repeated Ketamine Exposure-Induced Adverse Effects in the Developing Brain of Rats