Sanchez, Victoria B.S.; Feinstein, Shawn D. B.A.; Lunardi, Nadia M.D.; Joksovic, Pavle M. M.D.; Boscolo, Annalisa M.D.; Todorovic, Slobodan M. M.D., Ph.D.; Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna M.D., Ph.D., M.B.A.
Anesthesiology. 2011 Sept 8. [Epub ahead of print]
Background: Clinically used general anesthetics, alone or in combination, are damaging to the developing mammalian brain. In addition to causing widespread apoptotic neurodegeneration in vulnerable brain regions, exposure to general anesthesia at the peak of synaptogenesis causes learning and memory deficiencies later in life. In vivo rodent studies have suggested that activation of the intrinsic (mitochondria-dependent) apoptotic pathway is the earliest warning sign of neuronal damage, suggesting that a disturbance in mitochondrial integrity and function could be the earliest triggering events.
Methods: Because proper and timely mitochondrial morphogenesis is critical for brain development, the authors examined the long-term effects of a commonly used anesthesia combination (isoflurane, nitrous oxide, and midazolam) on the regional distribution, ultrastructural properties, and electron transport chain function of mitochondria, as well as synaptic neurotransmission, in the subiculum of rat pups.
Results: This anesthesia, administered at the peak of synaptogenesis, causes protracted injury to mitochondria, including significant enlargement of mitochondria (more than 30%, P < 0.05), impairment of their structural integrity, an approximately 28% increase in their complex IV activity (P < 0.05), and a twofold decrease in their regional distribution in presynaptic neuronal profiles (P < 0.05), where their presence is important for the normal development and functioning of synapses. Consequently, the authors showed that impaired mitochondrial morphogenesis is accompanied by heightened autophagic activity, decrease in mitochondrial density (approximately 27%, P < 0.05), and long-lasting disturbances in inhibitory synaptic neurotransmission. The interrelation of these phenomena remains to be established.
Conclusion: Developing mitochondria are exquisitely vulnerable to general anesthesia and may be important early target of anesthesia-induced developmental neurodegeneration.