Conflict arises when surgeons and anesthesiologists disagree about goals of care in perioperative settings. Collaboration is essential for safe, efficient, and effective care. Drawing on 2 pediatric cases that highlight risks of anesthetic exposure, this article examines the influence of surgical training on outcomes, barriers to collaboration, and anesthesiologists’ ethical obligations to educate surgeons and parents about anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity risks. The article also discusses how to align surgical and anesthetic practice during surgeries with prolonged anesthetic use.

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