Sevoflurane is widely used in general anesthesia, especially for children. However, prolonged exposure to sevoflurane is reported to be associated with adverse effects on the development of brain in infant monkey. Neural stem cells (NSCs), with potent proliferation, differentiation, and renewing ability, provide an encouraging tool for basic research and clinical therapies for neurodegenerative diseases. We aim to explore the functional effects of injecting NSCs with phosphodiesterase 7A (PDE7A) knock-down in infant mice exposed to sevoflurane. The effects of PDE7A in NSCs proliferation and differentiation were determined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and differentiation-related gene expression assay, respectively. The effects of NSCs with modified PDE7A on mice’s long-term memory and learning ability were assessed by behavioral assays. Our data demonstrated that depleting PDE7A promoted, whereas forcing PDE7A suppressed the activation of cAMP/cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) signaling as well as cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation of NSCs. Inhibition of PDE7A in NSCs exhibited profound improved effects on long-term memory and learning ability of mice exposed to sevoflurane. Our results for the first time show that knock-down of PDE7A improves the neurogenesis of NSCs in vitro and in vivo, and is beneficial for alleviating sevoflurane-induced brain damage in infant mice.