Neurotoxicity related to early exposure to various insults, both anesthesia-related and nonanesthesia-related, is a topic of ongoing and increasing interest. To better understand the process by which this might occur, the fifth PANDA Symposium convened a session in which 4 notable neuroscientists discussed current concepts and research in neurodevelopment, highlighting periods of particular susceptibility and ways in which neural connectivity and systemic functioning may be affected.