Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) X-inactive specific transcript (Xist) is involved in apoptosis and inflammatory injury. This study aimed to assess the role of lncRNA Xist in sevoflurane-induced social and emotional impairment and neuronal apoptosis in neonatal mice and hippocampal neuronal cells. The performance in social and emotional tests and the expression levels of lncRNA Xist and microRNA (miR)-98-5p after sevoflurane exposure were measured. Moreover, the effects of suppression of lncRNA Xist on neuronal apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were determined. Subsequently, the association among lncRNA Xist, miR-98-5p, and ER degradation-enhancing α-mannosidase-like 1 protein (EDEM1) was explored. Our results showed that lncRNA Xist increased, miR-98-5p decreased, and social and emotional impairment appeared after sevoflurane exposure. Furthermore, suppression of lncRNA Xist improved sevoflurane-induced social and emotional impairment and reduced sevoflurane-induced neuronal apoptosis and ER stress in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, lncRNA Xist negatively regulated miR-98-5p expression, and it contributed to sevoflurane-induced neuronal apoptosis and ER stress by sponging miR-98-5p. Additionally, EDEM1 was identified as a target of miR-98-5p. Our findings revealed that the knockdown of lncRNA Xist ameliorates sevoflurane-induced social and emotional impairment through inhibiting neuronal apoptosis and ER stress by targeting the miR-98-5p/EDEM1 axis.