There has been much recent controversy about whether exposure to general anaesthetic agents results in any long-term neurodevelopmental effects in children. The basis of this concern stems from data from animal studies, in which there is overwhelming evidence that anaesthetics interfere with brain development in nearly all animal models, including non-human primates. Clinical studies, however, have been less conclusive, as some studies have shown an association between anaesthetic exposure and neurodevelopmental deficit, whilst others have not.

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