FDA’s National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) is conducting non-clinical studies in both rodents and nonhuman primates to assess: 1) the mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity associated with clinically-relevant general anesthetics such as ketamine, nitrous oxide, and isoflurane; 2) long-term cognitive deficits related to developmental exposure to these agents; 3) strategies to prevent or ameliorate the adverse effects of anesthesia; and 4) the utility of PET imaging approaches to assist in the non-invasive monitoring of the location, severity, and time course of neurotoxic events associated with general anesthesia; it is hoped that such approaches will translate to use in humans.

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