Neurotoxicity is not rare and periodically severe and even life-threatening adverse effect (AE) of drugs belonging to many therapeutic groups. Manifestations of neurotoxicity are variable: disturbances of peripheral nervous system (ototoxicity and ophtalmotoxicity, visceral neuropathy, neuromuscular blockade), involving of central nervous system (CNS) (developmental brain malformations, seizures, impairment of consciousness, nonspecific encephalopathy). In the way of its consequences central nervous system damage is the most severe manifestation of drug neurotoxicity but the main predisposing factor is related to immature but growing intensively child brain of first years of life; the primary factor for neurotoxic effect is the capacity of drugs to transfer through brain-blood barrier and cumulate into CNS. The principal mechanism of neurotoxicity is dysfunction/apoptosis of nervous cells. Aim of this survey is to provide data and attract once again the professionals attention to the neurological complications of those drugs in the first place that are mainly targeted to the CNS effects (anticonvulsants, antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs, anesthetics) among the mostly sensitive groups – pregnant women, newborns, infants. Results. Based on analyzed data it was revealed high incidence of CNS complications both transient (seizures, temporarily impairment of consciousness) and persistent (developmental brain malformations, decrease of cognitive functions) in case of use of the drugs of current interest (anticonvulsants, antidepressants, antipsychotics, anesthetics (general and local), antibiotics) in risk groups – fetus, newborns, infants. Population risk of neurotoxicity includes also ethnic and genetic special features, renal and hepatic failure, background neuropsychic diseases except determined age groups. Conclusion. Neurotoxicity is one of the most severe manifestations of drug intolerance that depends on different aspects. The youngest targeted group is children of 0 – 3 years old due to their developmental immature brain and age-dependent specific characteristics of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics that could result in drug overdose as a particular case of neurotoxicity due underestimation of the mentioned above factors.

Read More