Sevoflurane, one of the most commonly used anesthetic agents, has been demonstrated to induce widespread neurodegeneration in the developing brain. We aimed to evaluate the protective effects of a PDE-7 inhibitor (BRL-50481) against the neurotoxic effects of sevoflurane on the developing nervous system. Spatial learning and memory in sevoflurane-treated mice were examined using the Morris water maze test, and neuroprotective effects of PDE-7 inhibitor (BRL-50481) against sevoflurane-induced impairments were evaluated. Our results showed that sevoflurane treatment markedly induced neurodegeneration and impaired long-term memory in neonatal mice. Notably, BRL-50481 coadministration could significantly attenuate sevoflurane-induced learning and memory defects, prevent deterioration of recognition memory, and protect against neuron apoptosis. Mechanistically, BRL-50481 administration suppressed sevoflurane-induced neurodegenerative disorders through restoring cAMP and activating cAMP/CREB signaling in the hippocampus. PDE7 inhibitor may be a potential therapeutic agent for sevoflurane-induced neurodegeneration and long-term memory deficits.