The Pediatric Anesthesia & Neurodevelopment Assessment (PANDA) project is a large, multi-center study based at the Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital of New York (Columbia University). The project aims to examine two groups of children – those who have been exposed to a single episode of general anesthesia during inguinal hernia surgery before age three years and those who are siblings of the first group who have not – and assess their neurodevelopment and cognitive functions between ages 8 to 15 years. The goal of the PANDA project is to add to the body of knowledge surrounding the important topic of the long-term neurodevelopmental effects of anesthesia and surgery in infants and young children. Currently, participating study sites include Boston Children’s (Harvard University), Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (University of Pennsylvania), Chicago Children’s Memorial (Northwestern University), Cincinnati Children’s Hospital (University of Cincinnati College of Medicine), Pittsburgh Children’s Hospital (University of Pittsburgh), Mott Children’s Hospital (University of Michigan) and Vanderbilt Children’s Hospital (Vanderbilt University).

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