On April 14 and 15, 2018, the Sixth Biennial Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopmental Assessment (PANDA) Symposium convened at Columbia University Medical Center and New York Presbyterian/Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital of New York. Since its inception over 10 years ago, the PANDA Symposium has served as a key forum for clinicians, researchers, and other major stakeholders to gather and review the current state of preclinical and clinical research related to anesthetic neurotoxicity in the developing brain. It has also served as an important venue for participants to gain insight and leverage support from various public and private regulatory bodies. Goals of this year’s meeting included assessments of how current knowledge has evolved, endeavors to develop common outcome measures, and formulations of future directions for research and policy. The Symposium program highlighted a diverse body of cutting-edge work, from results of preclinical and clinical studies to updates in clinical practice and policymaking.

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