Anesthesia cannot be avoided in many cases when surgery is required, particularly in children. Recent investigations in animals have raised concerns that anesthesia exposure may lead to neuronal apoptosis, known as anesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity (AIDN). Furthermore, some clinical studies in children have suggested that anesthesia exposure may lead to neurodevelopmental deficits later in life. Nonetheless, an ideal animal model for preclinical study has yet to be developed. The neonatal piglet represents a valuable model for preclinical study, as they share a striking number of developmental similarities with humans. The anatomy and physiology of piglets allow for implementation of rigorous human perioperative conditions in both survival and non-survival procedures. Femoral artery catheterization allows for close monitoring, thus enabling prompt correction of any deviation of the piglet’s vital signs and chemistries. In addition, there are multiple developmental similarities between piglets and human neonates. The techniques required to use piglets for experimentation will require experience to master. A pediatric anesthesiologist is a critical member of the investigative team. We describe, in a general sense, the appropriate use of a piglet model for neurodevelopmental study.