News and Events

SmartTots and IARS News, Press Releases and Events

Panda Symposium

SmartTots – Perspectives from the Front Lines

Millions of children undergo surgery annually. Recent studies suggest there may be reason for concern. This video, featuring Dr. Dean Andropoulos, Dr. Peter Davis, and Dr. Caleb Ing, provides a summary as to why research is needed and the type that is needed.

SmartTots to Help Make Anesthetics and Sedatives Safer for Children

Dr. Janet Woodcock, director of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research at the Food and Drug Administration, and Dr. Michael Roizen, of the International Anesthesia Research Society, unveil a new partnership that aims to make anesthesia safer for children.

Pediatric Anesthesia Questions and Myths-Mayo Clinic

Dr. Randall Flick at Mayo Clinic “debunks myths” and answers common questions raised by parents in regard to anesthesia.

17β-Estradiol Treatment Attenuates Neurogenesis Damage and Improves Behavior Performance After Ketamine Exposure in Neonatal Rats.

Ketamine exposure disturbed normal neurogenesis in the developing brain and resulted in subsequent neurocognitive deficits. 17β-estradiol provides robust neuroprotection in a variety of brain injury models in animals of both sexes and attenuates neurodegeneration induced by anesthesia agents. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether 17β-estradiol could attenuate neonatal ketamine exposure-disturbed neurogenesis and behavioral performance. We treated 7-day-old (Postnatal day 7, PND 7) Sprague-Dawley rats and neural stem cells (NSCs) with either normal saline, ketamine, or 17β-estradiol before/after ketamine exposure, respectively.

Defining the Vulnerability Window of Anesthesia-Induced Neuroapoptosis in Developing Dentate Gyrus Granule Cells – A Transgenic Approach Utilizing POMC-EGFP Mice.

Exposure to commonly used anesthetics is associated with widespread neuroapoptosis in neonatal animals. Vulnerability of developing hippocampal dentate gyrus granule cells to anesthetic neurotoxicity peaks approximately 2 weeks after cell birth, as measured by bromodeoxyuridine birth dating, regardless of the age of the animal. The present study examined whether the vulnerable window can be further characterized by utilizing a transgenic approach. Proopiomelanocortin enhanced green fluorescent protein (POMC-EGFP) mice (postnatal day 21) were exposed to 3% sevoflurane for 6 h.

Intranasal Administration of Insulin Reduces Chronic Behavioral Abnormality and Neuronal Apoptosis Induced by General Anesthesia in Neonatal Mice.

Children, after multiple exposures to general anesthesia, appear to be at an increased risk of developing learning disabilities. Almost all general anesthetics-including sevoflurane, which is commonly used for children-are potentially neurotoxic to the developing brain. Anesthesia exposure during development might also be associated with behavioral deficiencies later in life.

Anesthetics: from modes of action to unconsciousness and neurotoxicity.

Modern anesthetic compounds and advanced monitoring tools have revolutionized the field of medicine, allowing for complex surgical procedures to occur safely and effectively. Faster induction times and quicker recovery periods of current anesthetic agents have also helped reduce health care costs significantly. Moreover, extensive research has allowed for a better understanding of anesthetic modes of action, thus facilitating the development of more effective and safer compounds. Notwithstanding the realization that anesthetics are a prerequisite to all surgical procedures, evidence is emerging to support the notion that exposure of the developing brain to certain anesthetics may impact future brain development and function.

Lasting effects of general anesthetics on the brain in the young and elderly: “mixed picture” of neurotoxicity, neuroprotection and cognitive impairment.

General anesthetics are commonly used in major surgery. To achieve the depth of anesthesia for surgery, patients are being subjected to a variety of general anesthetics, alone or in combination. It has been long held an illusory concept that the general anesthesia is entirely reversible and that the central nervous system is returned to its pristine state once the anesthetic agent is eliminated from the active site.