ResourcesPublications + Presentations + FAQ
Ketamine inhibits neuronal differentiation by regulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling
Toxicology in Vitro April 2021
Dexmedetomidine and Clonidine Attenuate Sevoflurane-Induced Tau Phosphorylation and Cognitive Impairment in Young Mice via α-2 Adrenergic Receptor
Anesthesia & Analgesia March 1, 2021
Predictors of Anesthetic Exposure in Pediatric MRI.
American Journal of Roentgenology March 2021
A synthetic peptide rescues rat cortical neurons from anesthetic-induced cell death, perturbation of growth and synaptic assembly
Scientific Reports February 25, 2021
Developmental exposure to general anaesthesia: missed connections?
British Journal of Anaesthesia February 11, 2021
General anaesthesia during infancy reduces white matter micro-organisation in developing rhesus monkeys
British Journal of Anaesthesia February 3, 2021
Expression Signature of lncRNAs and mRNAs in Sevoflurane-Induced Mouse Brain Injury: Implication of Involvement of Wide Molecular Networks and Pathways
International Journal of Molecular Sciences January 30, 2021
Detrimental effects of general anaesthesia on young primates: are we closer to understanding the link?
British Journal of Anaesthesia January 25, 2021
Prenatal Exposure to General Anesthesia and Childhood Behavioral Deficit
Pediatric Anesthesia January 22, 2021
The effects of early anesthesia on neurodevelopment: A systematic review
The Journal of Pediatrics January 19, 2021
The Role of the lncRNA-LRCF in Propofol-Induced Oligodendrocyte Damage in Neonatal Mouse
Neurochemical Research January 7, 2021
Dexmedetomidine attenuates sevoflurane‑induced neurocognitive impairment through α2‑adrenoceptors
Molecular Medicine Reports January 2021
Fundamentals and innovations in regional anaesthesia for infants and children.
Anaesthesia January 2021
Resveratrol ameliorates sevoflurane-induced cognitive impairment by activating the SIRT1/NF-κB pathway in neonatal mice
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry December 31, 2020
Emerging Role of Long Noncoding RNAs in Perioperative Neurocognitive Disorders and Anesthetic-Induced Developmental Neurotoxicity
Anesthesia & Analgesia December 16, 2020
Hypotension and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes among children with multiple exposures to general anesthesia: Subanalysis of the Mayo Anesthesia Safety in Kids (MASK) Study
Paediatric Anaesthesia December 15, 2020
Sevoflurane-induced neuronal apoptosis in neonatal mice is prevented with intranasal administration of insulin
American Journal of Translational Research December 15, 2020
Neurodevelopmental Outcomes after Premedication with Atropine/Propofol vs Atropine/Atracurium/Sufentanil for Neonatal Intubation: 2-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Clinical Trial
The Journal of Pediatrics December 8, 2020
Sevoflurane Exposure Induces Neuronal Cell Parthanatos Initiated by DNA Damage in the Developing Brain via an Increase of Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience December 3, 2020
Neonatal exposure to ketamine disrupts developmental synapse unsilencing and predisposes adult mice for stressor-evoked anxiety
Neuropharmacology December 1, 2020
Prenatal sevoflurane exposure: Effects of iron metabolic dysfunction on offspring cognition and potential mechanism
International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience December 1, 2020
Prospectively assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes in studies of anaesthetic neurotoxicity in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis
British Journal of Anaesthesia November 27, 2020
Interval-dependent neurotoxicity after multiple ketamine injections in late postnatal mice
Journal of Anesthesia November 24, 2020
Infant isoflurane exposure affects social behaviours, but does not impair specific cognitive domains in juvenile non-human primates
British Journal of Anaesthesia November 13, 2020
The differential effects of isoflurane and sevoflurane on neonatal mice
Scientific Reports November 9, 2020
Anesthesia in Childhood and Neurodevelopmental Outcome: The Ongoing Hunt for a Phenome
Anesthesiology November 2020
Hot Topics in Safety for Pediatric Anesthesia
Children November 2020
Neuroprotection of the Developing Brain by Dexmedetomidine Is Mediated by Attenuating Single Propofol-induced Hippocampal Apoptosis and Synaptic Plasticity Deficits
Experimental Neurobiology October 31, 2020
Behavior and Regional Cortical BOLD Signal Fluctuations Are Altered in Adult Rabbits After Neonatal Volatile Anesthetic Exposure
Frontiers in Neuroscience October 23, 2020
miR-455-3p alleviates propofol-induced neurotoxicity by reducing EphA4 expression in developing neurons
Biomarkers October 18, 2020
An Overview on the Mechanisms of Neuroprotection and Neurotoxicity of Isoflurane and Sevoflurane in Experimental Studies
Brain Research Bulletin October 17, 2020
MicroRNA-204-5p mediates sevoflurane-induced cytotoxicity in HT22 cells by targeting brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Histology & Histopathology October 2, 2020
Androgenic Modulation of the Chloride Transporter NKCC1 Contributes to Age-dependent Isoflurane Neurotoxicity in Male Rats
Anesthesiology October 1, 2020
A Methyltransferase Inhibitor (Decitabine) Alleviates Intergenerational Effects of Paternal Neonatal Exposure to Anesthesia With Sevoflurane
Anesthesia & Analgesia October 2020
Sevoflurane leads to learning and memory dysfunction via breaking the balance of tPA/PAI-1.
Neurochemistry International October 2020
Maternal sevoflurane exposure affects differentiation of hippocampal neural stem cells by regulating miR-410-3p and ATN1
Stem Cell Research & Therapy September 29, 2020
Anesthesia plus surgery in neonatal period impairs preference for social novelty in mice at the juvenile age.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications September 24, 2020
Protective role of protocatechuic acid in sevoflurane-induced neuron apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress in mice
Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience September 24, 2020
Conditions requiring hospitalisations, more than general anaesthesia itself, are associated with diagnosis of learning disorders in children
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine September 23, 2020
Effects of early postnatal sevoflurane exposure on oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination in cerebral white matter of the rat
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy September 18, 2020
Neonatal exposure to sevoflurane expands the window of vulnerability to adverse effects of subsequent exposure to sevoflurane and alters hippocampal morphology via decitabine-sensitive mechanisms
Neuroscience Letters September 14, 2020
Sevoflurane Post-Conditioning Ameliorates Neuronal Deficits and Axon Demyelination After Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Brain Injury: Role of Microglia/Macrophage
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology September 2, 2020
Propofol inhibits the expression of Abelson nonreceptor tyrosine kinase without affecting learning or memory function in neonatal rats
Brain and Behavior September 1, 2020
Is Anesthesia Bad for the Brain? Current Knowledge on the Impact of Anesthetics on the Developing Brain.
Anesthesiology Clinics September 2020
Sevoflurane Induces Hippocampal Neuronal Apoptosis by Altering the Level of Neuropeptide Y in Neonatal Rats.
Neurochemical Research September 2020
Tau Contributes to Sevoflurane-induced Neurocognitive Impairment in Neonatal Mice
Anesthesiology September 2020
The Unspoken Question!
Anesthesia & Analgesia September 2020
Yes‑associated protein protects and rescues SH‑SY5Y cells from ketamine‑induced apoptosis
Molecular Medicine Reports September 2020
Propofol Exposure Disturbs the Differentiation of Rodent Neural Stem Cells via an miR-124-3p/Sp1/Cdkn1b Axis
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology August 27, 2020
Dexmedetomidine: What’s New for Pediatrics? A Narrative Review
Journal of Clinical Medicine August 24, 2020
Dusp4 Contributes to Anesthesia Neurotoxicity via Mediated Neural Differentiation in Primates
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology August 19, 2020
Research progress and treatment strategies for anesthetic neurotoxicity.
Brain Research Bulletin August 13, 2020
Anesthesia Exposure during Therapy Predicts Neurocognitive Outcomes in Survivors of Childhood Medulloblastoma
The Journal of Pediatrics August 2020
Sevoflurane Induces Learning and Memory Impairment in Young Mice Through a Reduction in Neuronal Glucose Transporter 3
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology August 2020
Regions of the basal ganglia and primary olfactory system are most sensitive to neurodegeneration after extended sevoflurane anesthesia in the perinatal rat.
Neurotoxicology and Teratology July-August 2020
Association between surgical procedures under general anesthesia in infancy and developmental outcomes at 1 year: the Japan Environment and Children’s Study.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine July 25, 2020
LncRNA Rik-203 Contributes to Sevoflurane Induced Neurotoxicity?
Frontiers in Medicine (Lausanne) July 22, 2020
Increasing the interval between repeated anesthetic exposures reduces long‐lasting synaptic changes in late post‐natal mice
Journal of Neurochemistry July 8, 2020
Coenzyme Q10 Alleviates sevoflurane‑induced Neuroinflammation by Regulating the Levels of Apolipoprotein E and Phosphorylated Tau Protein in Mouse Hippocampal Neurons
Molecular Medicine Reports July 2020
Neurotoxicity effects of anesthetic exposure on the developing brain of non-human primates
Medical Hypotheses July 2020
LncRNA LINC00641 Sponges miR-497-5p to Ameliorate Neural Injury Induced by Anesthesia via Up-Regulating BDNF.
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience June 30, 2020
General anesthesia affecting on developing brain: evidence from animal to clinical research.
Journal of Anesthesia June 29, 2020
Autophagic Network Analysis of the Dual Effect of Sevoflurane on Neurons Associated with GABARAPL1 and 2.
BioMed Research International June 26, 2020
Dexmedetomidine in children – when should we be using it?
Anaesthesia June 24, 2020
Neonatal sevoflurane exposure induces impulsive behavioral deficit through disrupting excitatory neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex in mice.
Translational Psychiatry June 20, 2020
An appropriate level of autophagy reduces emulsified isoflurane-induced apoptosis in fetal neural stem cells.
Neural Regeneration Research June 19, 2020
Safety of anesthetic exposure on the developing brain – Do we have the answer yet?
Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology June 15, 2020
Propofol Attenuates Isoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity and Cognitive Impairment in Fetal and Offspring Mice
Anesthesia & Analgesia June 10, 2020
Use of Dexmedetomidine and Opioids as the Primary Anesthetic in Infants and Young Children: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Pediatric Anesthesia June 8, 2020
Optimization of Ultrasound Backscatter Spectroscopy to Assess Neurotoxic Effects of Anesthesia in the Newborn Non-human Primate Brain
Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology May 29, 2020
Neonatal Exposure to Anesthesia Leads to Cognitive Deficits in Old Age: Prevention With Intranasal Administration of Insulin in Mice
Neurotoxicity Research May 26, 2020
Neonatal Ketamine Alters High-Frequency Oscillations and Synaptic Plasticity in the Subiculum But Does not Affect Sleep Macrostructure in Adolescent Rats
Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience May 26, 2020
Neuroendocrine, epigenetic, and intergenerational effects of general anesthetics
World Journal of Psychiatry May 19, 2020
Upregulation of miR-215 attenuates propofol-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in developing neurons by targeting LATS2.
Molecular Medicine May 6, 2020
Neurotoxicity of Sub-Anesthetic Doses of Sevoflurane and Dexmedetomidine Co-Administration in Neonatal Rats
NeuroToxicology May 5, 2020
Upregulation of miR-496 Rescues Propofol-Induced Neurotoxicity by Targeting Rho Associated Coiled-Coil Containing Protein Kinase 2 (ROCK2) in Prefrontal Cortical Neurons
Current Neurovascular Research May 5, 2020
Acetyl-l-carnitine Does Not Prevent Neurodegeneration in a Rodent Model of Prolonged Neonatal Anesthesia
Neurotoxicology and Teratology May 3, 2020
Standards for Preclinical Research and Publications in Developmental Anaesthetic Neurotoxicity: Expert Opinion Statement From the SmartTots Preclinical Working Group
British Journal of Anaesthesia May 2020
What is SmartTots?
What is the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR)?
How did the concerns about the safety of anesthetic drugs for infants and young children arise?
IARS 2015 Annual Meeting and International Science Symposium
Improving Health through Discovery and Education
Neurotoxicity of Anesthetics in the Developing Brain – A Translational Update
Ansgar Brambrink, MD, PhD
Key Summary Points
Neurotoxicity of Anesthetics in the Developing Brain
- The major excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, and the major inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), are generally associated with neuronal communication in the adult brain.
- In the developing brain, these transmitters play a central role in brain morphogenesis, including synapse formation, proliferation, migration, differentiation and survival of neurons.