ResourcesPublications + Presentations + FAQ
Anesthesia in Childhood and Neurodevelopmental Outcome: The Ongoing Hunt for a Phenome
Anesthesiology November 2020
miR-455-3p alleviates propofol-induced neurotoxicity by reducing EphA4 expression in developing neurons
Biomarkers October 18, 2020
An Overview on the Mechanisms of Neuroprotection and Neurotoxicity of Isoflurane and Sevoflurane in Experimental Studies
Brain Research Bulletin October 17, 2020
MicroRNA-204-5p mediates sevoflurane-induced cytotoxicity in HT22 cells by targeting brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Histology & Histopathology October 2, 2020
A Methyltransferase Inhibitor (Decitabine) Alleviates Intergenerational Effects of Paternal Neonatal Exposure to Anesthesia With Sevoflurane
Anesthesia & Analgesia October 2020
Sevoflurane leads to learning and memory dysfunction via breaking the balance of tPA/PAI-1.
Neurochemistry International October 2020
Maternal sevoflurane exposure affects differentiation of hippocampal neural stem cells by regulating miR-410-3p and ATN1
Stem Cell Research & Therapy September 29, 2020
Anesthesia plus surgery in neonatal period impairs preference for social novelty in mice at the juvenile age.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications September 24, 2020
Protective role of protocatechuic acid in sevoflurane-induced neuron apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress in mice
Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience September 24, 2020
Conditions requiring hospitalisations, more than general anaesthesia itself, are associated with diagnosis of learning disorders in children
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine September 23, 2020
Propofol inhibits the expression of Abelson nonreceptor tyrosine kinase without affecting learning or memory function in neonatal rats
Brain and Behavior September 1, 2020
Is Anesthesia Bad for the Brain? Current Knowledge on the Impact of Anesthetics on the Developing Brain.
Anesthesiology Clinics September 2020
Sevoflurane Induces Hippocampal Neuronal Apoptosis by Altering the Level of Neuropeptide Y in Neonatal Rats.
Neurochemical Research September 2020
The Unspoken Question!
Anesthesia & Analgesia September 2020
Propofol Exposure Disturbs the Differentiation of Rodent Neural Stem Cells via an miR-124-3p/Sp1/Cdkn1b Axis
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology August 27, 2020
Dexmedetomidine: What’s New for Pediatrics? A Narrative Review
Journal of Clinical Medicine August 24, 2020
Dusp4 Contributes to Anesthesia Neurotoxicity via Mediated Neural Differentiation in Primates
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology August 19, 2020
Research progress and treatment strategies for anesthetic neurotoxicity.
Brain Research Bulletin August 13, 2020
Anesthesia Exposure during Therapy Predicts Neurocognitive Outcomes in Survivors of Childhood Medulloblastoma
The Journal of Pediatrics August 2020
Sevoflurane Induces Learning and Memory Impairment in Young Mice Through a Reduction in Neuronal Glucose Transporter 3
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology August 2020
Regions of the basal ganglia and primary olfactory system are most sensitive to neurodegeneration after extended sevoflurane anesthesia in the perinatal rat.
Neurotoxicology and Teratology July-August 2020
Association between surgical procedures under general anesthesia in infancy and developmental outcomes at 1 year: the Japan Environment and Children’s Study.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine July 25, 2020
LncRNA Rik-203 Contributes to Sevoflurane Induced Neurotoxicity?
Frontiers in Medicine (Lausanne) July 22, 2020
Coenzyme Q10 Alleviates sevoflurane‑induced Neuroinflammation by Regulating the Levels of Apolipoprotein E and Phosphorylated Tau Protein in Mouse Hippocampal Neurons
Molecular Medicine Reports July 2020
Neurotoxicity effects of anesthetic exposure on the developing brain of non-human primates
Medical Hypotheses July 2020
LncRNA LINC00641 Sponges miR-497-5p to Ameliorate Neural Injury Induced by Anesthesia via Up-Regulating BDNF.
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience June 30, 2020
General anesthesia affecting on developing brain: evidence from animal to clinical research.
Journal of Anesthesia June 29, 2020
Autophagic Network Analysis of the Dual Effect of Sevoflurane on Neurons Associated with GABARAPL1 and 2.
BioMed Research International June 26, 2020
Dexmedetomidine in children – when should we be using it?
Anaesthesia June 24, 2020
Neonatal sevoflurane exposure induces impulsive behavioral deficit through disrupting excitatory neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex in mice.
Translational Psychiatry June 20, 2020
An appropriate level of autophagy reduces emulsified isoflurane-induced apoptosis in fetal neural stem cells.
Neural Regeneration Research June 19, 2020
Safety of anesthetic exposure on the developing brain – Do we have the answer yet?
Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology June 15, 2020
Propofol Attenuates Isoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity and Cognitive Impairment in Fetal and Offspring Mice
Anesthesia & Analgesia June 10, 2020
Use of Dexmedetomidine and Opioids as the Primary Anesthetic in Infants and Young Children: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Pediatric Anesthesia June 8, 2020
Optimization of Ultrasound Backscatter Spectroscopy to Assess Neurotoxic Effects of Anesthesia in the Newborn Non-human Primate Brain
Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology May 29, 2020
Neonatal Exposure to Anesthesia Leads to Cognitive Deficits in Old Age: Prevention With Intranasal Administration of Insulin in Mice
Neurotoxicity Research May 26, 2020
Neonatal Ketamine Alters High-Frequency Oscillations and Synaptic Plasticity in the Subiculum But Does not Affect Sleep Macrostructure in Adolescent Rats
Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience May 26, 2020
Neuroendocrine, epigenetic, and intergenerational effects of general anesthetics
World Journal of Psychiatry May 19, 2020
Upregulation of miR-215 attenuates propofol-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in developing neurons by targeting LATS2.
Molecular Medicine May 6, 2020
Neurotoxicity of Sub-Anesthetic Doses of Sevoflurane and Dexmedetomidine Co-Administration in Neonatal Rats
NeuroToxicology May 5, 2020
Upregulation of miR-496 Rescues Propofol-Induced Neurotoxicity by Targeting Rho Associated Coiled-Coil Containing Protein Kinase 2 (ROCK2) in Prefrontal Cortical Neurons
Current Neurovascular Research May 5, 2020
Acetyl-l-carnitine Does Not Prevent Neurodegeneration in a Rodent Model of Prolonged Neonatal Anesthesia
Neurotoxicology and Teratology May 3, 2020
Standards for Preclinical Research and Publications in Developmental Anaesthetic Neurotoxicity: Expert Opinion Statement From the SmartTots Preclinical Working Group
British Journal of Anaesthesia May 2020
Potential Neurodevelopmental Effects of Pediatric Intensive Care Sedation and Analgesia: Repetitive Benzodiazepine and Opioid Exposure Alters Expression of Glial and Synaptic Proteins in Juvenile Rats
Critical Care Explorations April 29, 2020
HSP90 inhibitor 17AAG attenuates sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in rats and human neuroglioma cells via induction of HSP70
Journal of Translational Medicine April 15, 2020
Pediatric anesthesiologists’ attitudes about neurotoxicity and the FDA drug safety communication
Pediatric Anesthesia April 12, 2020
Iron Overload Contributes to General Anaesthesia-Induced Neurotoxicity and Cognitive Deficits
Journal of Neuroinflammation April 11, 2020
PDE-7 Inhibitor BRL-50481 Reduces Neurodegeneration and Long-Term Memory Deficits in Mice Following Sevoflurane Exposure
ACS Chemical Neuroscience April 9, 2020
Effect of xenon and dexmedetomidine as adjuncts for general anesthesia on postoperative emergence delirium after elective cardiac catheterization in children: study protocol for a randomized, controlled, pilot trial
Trials April 3, 2020
How Should Trainees’ Influences on Postoperative Outcomes Be Disclosed?
AMA Journal of Ethics April 2020
Inhibition of the electron transport chain in propofol induced neurotoxicity in zebrafish embryos
Neurotoxicology and Teratology March-April 2020
Ketamine promotes the neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells by activating mTOR
Molecular Medicine Reports March 30, 2020
GAS, PANDA, and MASK: Comment. Williams & Sartorelli.
Anesthesiology March 26, 2020
Effects of propofol on hippocampal neuron viability
Child’s Nervous System March 16, 2020
Evaluation of the Toxicity of Sugammadex in Zebrafish Larvae
Journal of Korean Medical Science March 9, 2020
Compound Porcine Cerebroside and Ganglioside Injection (CPCGI) Attenuates Sevoflurane-Induced Nerve Cell Injury by Regulating the Phosphorylation of p38 MAP Kinase (p38MAPK)/Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB) Pathway.
Medical Science Monitor March 1, 2020
Dexmedetomidine attenuates ethanol-induced inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis in neonatal mice
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology March 1, 2020
Anesthesia for Major Surgery in the Neonate
Anesthesiology Clinics March 2020
GAS, PANDA, and MASK: Comment
Anesthesiology March 2020
GAS, PANDA, and MASK: Reply. Vutskits & Culley
Anesthesiology March 2020
Neurotoxicity of Drugs in Children During Antenatal and Postnatal Development Periods
American Journal of Pediatrics March 2020
Sex differences in neurodevelopmental abnormalities caused by early-life anaesthesia exposure: a review.
British Journal of Anaesthesia March 2020
False Interpretation of Scientific Data Leads to Biased Conclusions About the Association Between Cesarean Deliveries Under General Anesthesia and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders February 19, 2020
Resveratrol Mitigates Sevoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity by the SIRT1-Dependent Regulation of BDNF Expression in Developing Mice
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity February 19, 2020
Neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine against the ketamine-induced disturbance of proliferation and differentiation of developing neural stem cells in the subventricular zone
BMC Neuroscience February 16, 2020
Cyclophilin D Contributes to Anesthesia Neurotoxicity in the Developing Brain
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology February 11, 2020
MicroRNA-582-5p reduces propofol-induced apoptosis in developing neurons by targeting ROCK1.
Current Neurovascular Research February 7, 2020
Definition of Clinical Outcomes in Pediatric Anesthesia Research: It Is Like the Tower of Babel!
Anesthesia & Analgesia February 2020
Desflurane and Surgery Exposure During Pregnancy Decrease Synaptic Integrity and Induce Functional Deficits in Juvenile Offspring Mice.
Neurochemical Research February 2020
Exogenous GM1 Ganglioside Attenuates Ketamine-Induced Neurocognitive Impairment in the Developing Rat Brain
Anesthesia & Analgesia February 2020
General anesthesia risk across pediatric surgical specialties: Low in otolaryngology
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology February 2020
Dexmedetomidine Alleviates Neurogenesis Damage Following Neonatal Midazolam Exposure in Rats through JNK and P38 MAPK Pathways
ACS Chemical Neuroscience January 30, 2020
Effects of embryonic propofol exposure on axonal growth and locomotor activity in zebrafish
Journal of Applied Toxicology January 30, 2020
The mTOR Inhibitor Rapamycin Prevents General Anesthesia-Induced Changes in Synaptic Transmission and Mitochondrial Respiration in Late Postnatal Mice
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience January 28, 2020
Downregulation of CDK5 Restores Sevoflurane-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction by Promoting SIRT1-Mediated Autophagy.
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology January 16, 2020
Conflicting Actions of Inhalational Anesthetics, Neurotoxicity and Neuroprotection, Mediated by the Unfolded Protein Response
International Journal of Molecular Sciences January 10, 2020
Exposure to Surgery and Anesthesia in Early Childhood and Subsequent Use of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Medications.
Anesthesia & Analgesia January 8, 2020
Paediatric Anaesthesia Neurotoxicity: Bring Back the Papoose Board?
Oral Health January 7, 2020
Effects of Xenon-Based Anesthetic Exposure on the Expression Levels of Polysialic Acid Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (PSA-NCAM) on Human Neural Stem Cell-Derived Neurons.
Molecular Neurobiology January 2020
General anesthesia in infants: neurobiological and neuropsychological concerns.
Boletin medico del Hospital Infantil de Mexico 2020
Ketamine exerts neurotoxic effects on the offspring of pregnant rats via the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research January 2020
NR2B receptor- and calpain-mediated KCC2 cleavage resulted in cognitive deficiency exposure to isoflurane
NeuroToxicology January 2020
Paeonol attenuates isoflurane anesthesia-induced hippocampal neurotoxicity via modulation of JNK/ERK/P38MAPK pathway and regulates histone acetylation in neonatal rat.
Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine January 2020
Vitexin improves neuron apoptosis and memory impairment induced by isoflurane via regulation of miR-409 expression.
Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine January 2020
Playing with dexmedetomidine pharmacokinetics!
British Journal of Anaesthesia December 23, 2019
Dexmedetomidine improves neurodevelopment and cognitive impairment in infants with congenital heart disease
Personalized Medicine December 16, 2019
Does general anesthesia affect neurodevelopment in infants and children?
BMJ December 9, 2019
Ketamine Regulates Phosphorylation of CRMP2 To Mediate Dendritic Spine Plasticity
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience December 5, 2019
What is SmartTots?
What is the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR)?
How did the concerns about the safety of anesthetic drugs for infants and young children arise?
IARS 2015 Annual Meeting and International Science Symposium
Improving Health through Discovery and Education
Neurotoxicity of Anesthetics in the Developing Brain – A Translational Update
Ansgar Brambrink, MD, PhD
Key Summary Points
Neurotoxicity of Anesthetics in the Developing Brain
- The major excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, and the major inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), are generally associated with neuronal communication in the adult brain.
- In the developing brain, these transmitters play a central role in brain morphogenesis, including synapse formation, proliferation, migration, differentiation and survival of neurons.